Social
The Public of Modern society
Deng Zimei
04/08/2011 01:56 (GMT+7)
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  The basic difference between the Buddhism and the other Indian religions is the Origin theory, which is also the core idea of the Buddhism. According to the Origin theory, Buddhism believed that the society is composed of the cause, individual, family, social organization constituted the society. The Buddhism’s social view is the numerous reasons gathered and its social aim is attaining “gathering”. Therefore, the constituent of society cannot overemphasize itself, each course could coordinate and cooperate, in this way, the social stability and peace can maintain, for example, the social harmony of the ancient India.
          The chapter one    the gather of the family, social organization and classes
  Early Buddhism embarks by this basic concept, believed that the individual and the relative could “harmony” and cooperate, In the family, the Buddhism also stressed that the younger could filial and provide the elder.
  But in traditional family, individual is only its member and only enjoys the corresponding right depending on its status as a family member. May also say that if he loses this status, he will lose all. Obey the family is the most important. But the family relation is maintaining by the rank order on the blood relationship, so the harmony under the family responsibility conscious is covering the bloody battle and the painful sacrifice. In the modern society, individual had the independence, but because of this, the family’s harmony which established intrinsically on the individual aware has bigger possibility. As a result of Buddhism’s social view is building on the equality, but equality means confirming the independence of the main body. Therefore, the Buddhism’s family gather theory which emphasizes the children should filial but the parents should also respect their children appears more important.
   At that time the Indian’s reality is the existence of the strict difference between the social classes which stipulates by the caste system. The Buddhism did not avoid.
  In the traditional society, the social classes are invariable and the family background has roughly doomed his “destiny”. But in the modern society, the possibility that individual no longer attach to its owner class to survive is much bigger. And the realistic possibility which the Buddhism’s retribution of karma origin theory discussed that the individual’s destiny can depend on its “industry” to “convert” is also much bigger. Pulling up to the upper class depending on its owner diligence or reducing to the lower class because of unfortunate is ordinary. The relation of each social class is not invariable, according to its “industry”: the entire class has the possibility to rise or to reduce. But the industry is the cause, the other conditions are predestine, the cause and the predestine gather to the result. If the Individual and social classes want to maintain the original status, they must attach importance to the karma. If one wants to raise their social position, he should do more goodwill. A basic difference between the modern society and the traditional society is the individual and the lower class in possession of relative independence, but no longer attach to family or the upper class. It makes the equality which the Buddhism advocated no longer a dream. The modern society is the residential society; the individual condenses through the voluntary social organization of all forms and is engaged in each social work and enterprise, but no longer in a state of disunity like in the tradition society. Various residential associations must consolidate and maintain, and must pay attention to the cause and gather.
  The chapter two the monk roll and the Buddhism gathering
   The early Buddhism monk roll requested the monk; the Buddhism four audience to be together achieve “six respects” in principle .its internal policy-making management also has the democratic tradition. At that time “all business in the monk handled by the monk numerous council, didn’t allow one person or small number of people act arbitrarily. About the conference procedure, the conference date, the work self-criticism, the personal behavior self-criticism and so on had the detailed stipulation. This is Buddhism’s fine tradition, it’s too shallow to think deeply and spread broadly. In the modern society ,the Buddhism association takes of a special type resident society each voluntary union organizations, religious organization’s inside and outside respect is more important, specially compared with the paternalistic suppression pattern ,which is formed by the patriarchal society tradition ,through the democratic way to listen attentively to the difficult call ,make earnest self –criticism, raise the decision-making management level, so processing the monk roll internal affair to be able to manifest six respects principle well.
  As for the respect between the monk and the Buddhist, the early Buddhism’s principle will not change, but the modern society devout audiences respect the Buddhist from heart, more look that their monk standard, such as abiding by the commandments, the impressive and dignified manner, the Buddhist quality, a pious life attainments and so on, but no longer only look at the statuses and the Buddhist monk’s robes semblance. The monk accepts disciples in home, also pay great attention intrinsic quality, not only look that their status, assets and so on, this is the reliable foundation of respects. Whether the Buddhism association interior cause gathering, it is also decide its retrogression or development.
The chapter three the harmony of law and political order
  Early Buddhist believed that the Buddhists also had the duty to the national society, firstly, abiding by the law,” if violate the country system, scholars also commit crimes. Secondly, they should be grateful to society and country.” Graciousness in society has four kinds: 1, parent’s graciousness. 2. All living things (this refer to society) graciousness, 3.kings (this refer to country). 4. Treasures (this refer to Buddha law, monk) graciousness. If it owns four graciousness, all living things are equally bear a burden. Corresponding, increase one Arab league thought king’s responsibility is must govern legally and reasonably, not by illegal or unreasonable. We must respect the Buddhist highly. ”who can leally protect all living things to be peaceful, namely for king…… the king takes people as country, his status will stable. This is “people are basic” thought, and it is similar to this idea of MenKe: “people expensive king is light”. So the Buddhism which changes into Chinese Buddhism is about that it has some substantial clause with Chinese culture.
  But the modern society is the legal principle theory of law society, opposing to the essential political order, the economic order, the moral order says, the legal order has the supreme status, state power’s operation, civil society’s self-control, market economy’s benign movement rely on the law. Therefore in the modern age, the citizens obey the law self-consciousness and the government governs legally to the higher than the traditional society. The gathering of them decides roughly “government by law” realization. Either side is lack; maybe cause “the government by law” failure. Therefore, in early Buddhism the precious thought is neglected, the gathering between the law and managing state affairs according to law, is worth excavating in modern country.
   The ancient Indian Buddhist also participated in politics. Once Released Sakyamuni advised to ancient India king, and some suggestions were accepted. The Buddha had also affirmed highly the point the king’s taxation. Power must be acknowledged by people, which ancient Indian Sa Zhe admonished the emperor. Then Released Sakyamuni gave Sa Zhe records for his merits. So Buddhism agrees with the democracy, its preliminarily democratic idea is also establish in all living things equality.
   Modern politics gathering firstly is the above essential factor further development, namely gathering must establish in the citizen equal political rights, the government decision-making starting point must represent the people long-term and the fundamental interests, in the decision-making process should have people’s widespread participation, the policy-making execution and changing must obtains the people’s agreement. The political harmony firstly is the harmony of the country and the people, but what is different from the traditional society is the residential society itself can keep in balance to government exercise of power. State agency interior authority exercises also keeps in balance. Through restricting mutually achieves all quarter relation in balance. This is modern society unique politics gathering. 
   It can be seen, regardless of one person or the family, the social organization, the social stratum relations looked personally, from the inner or outside Buddhism relations, or from politics, the legal relationship, the numerous reasons and gathering’s Buddhism society view remains unchanged, but comparing with modern society’s cause and the traditional society, the modern ones change much, therefore the content, the way and reciprocity gathering is in readjusting

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