personality, according to the Buddhist standpoint, is a composite
of psychical and
physical components (naama-ruupa) and its very nature is
changing and impermanent.
In relation to it the presupposition of I and 'mine' arises.
Yet it is neither, some
by-product of merely material elements' nor 'the divine creation
of God.' Its value
does not depend upon the two principles, namely, the materialistic
and the theistic, but
is conditioned by the practice, through human effort, of the three
cultural principles as
previously discussed. Man possesses a free will and effort in
the field of threefold
action: in thought, in speech and in deed. The glory of human
life, individual as well as
social, lies in this element, but it is also the source of
difficulties and sometimes of
degradation of mankind. Man has human value in the individual
who acts in a worthy way
for his own welfare and for that of others. Everyone, expressing
body-with-mind, is a chooser; he has the choice between free paly
of will and restraint of
will by regulation. He wants what he believes to be better and it
is of his nature to seek
freely, through many "betters', a 'best'. He is aware of an
inner motivation to
act or not to act, he lives with others; each is a willer, each is
a chooser, existing
according to his own choice-a choice for the improvement of
The Buddha was a human being alive
to this world as one of
the religious and philosophical leaders of mankind. He looked upon
man's wayfaring in the
world as a very true thing, he did not claim to be other than a
human being and
attributed all his realization, success and achievement to his
human endeavour and
intelligence. By his example he urged man to put forth his own
energy to attain the
unattained, to master the unmastered and to realize the
unrealized; he was convinced that
in possession of that state man will live happily. In this
respect, man's position is
supreme; he is his own master and there is no other being or power
higher than himself
judging over his destiny; his success or failure lies in his own
will, choice and
strength. 'To become a friend, an intimate of that which is good
yourself must take into your life diligence in good things.' If
a man values his life,
it is suggested, he should ever guard it well  and live it in
the right way, since a
wise man lives earnestly. Since nothing is dearer to man than his
own life, man should
regard and respect the lives of others as he does his own.
Human life, or more
properly human conditions, are of supreme value, not only because
of life itself but also
because of the fact that human welfare, material, moral and
spiritual, and even final
emancipation are gained from it and in it.
The whole body of the Buddha's
teachings can be
transferred into ethical terminology as follows: 'Not to do any
evil, to devote oneself to
doing good, and to purify the mind, this is the teaching of the
teaching offers any individual or society a voluntary way of
thought and practice based
upon an analysis of human morality which promotes human welfare
and well-being, and aims
at the realization of the truth of human life and finally at
freedom from suffering.
Rejecting all claims to heavenly revelation and all appeal s to
theological authority, the
Buddha discovered and founded his standard of truth and his method
of acquiring it through
his own experimental effort on practical principles, and this
method can be applied to the
universal problems of human life. King Bhumibol expresses this
idea in his statement
that "Buddhism deals with the truth of human life... I am of the
that the proper way to preach Buddhism is to teach man how to
discover and realize the
right principles of life and to act according to those principles
for his own benefit,
welfare and well-being." This concern with human existence and
experience in dealing with the problems relative to humam life,
this tolerance of
right-minded inquiry and stress on human action guided by right
religious and philosophical way of life, this reliance upon
supreme human will and
capacity and emphasis on human value as the highest and best, the
experiencing freedom in perfect existence - all these principles,
Buddhism and express its view of life. "Buddhism is a system
of thought, a
religion, a spiritual science and a way of life, which is
reasonalbe and practical,"
Humphreys Writes, "...It points to man and man alone as the
creator of his own life
and sole designer of his destiny."
The Buddha's Attitude towards
Human Interest and Welfare
The Buddha addressed sometimes
himself to people who were
in trouble. The Pali texts depict him discussing with his hearers
what he judged to be
immediately relevant to and profitable for their respective
present conditions. Everything
he taught had a beneficial bearing upon someone's concrete quest
and search. The immediate
need, according to the Buddha, is to realize the nature of the
difficulties and problems
of human life and to adopt the right ways of removing them so that
humanity may reach its
supreme bliss. Thus the Buddha's main concern is to remedy and
remove the suffering of
mankind. His gospel is the gospel of love advocating generosity,
loyalty, serenity and compassion among human beings. His heart
was full of love for
mankind and for all living beings and his sole purpose was to
dedicate his life to the
propagation of his religion for the sake of mankind. He taught
his religion to people
for the purification of their minds, words and deeds, for the
overcoming of sorrow and
despair, the disappearance of grief and dejection, the reaching of
the Way, and the
realization of security and salvation.
Compassion and concern for the
welfare of mankind and of
all living beings is frequently spoken of and recommended by the
Buddha  and his
compassionate nature has been famous down the centuries. It seems
inconceivable that this
should have been without a very real foundation in history. In
"then in speaking rightly of me one should say: 'A being (the
liable to bewilderment has arisen in the world for the welfare,
the profit and the
happiness of many folk, out of compassion for the world, for the
good, the interest, the
well-being both of divine and human beings." Elsewhere, we
learn that the Buddha
does not assert a statement (a) which he knows to be untrue (abhuuta.m),
fact (ataccha.m), unprofitable (anatthasa~nhita.m), unpleasant
and disagreeable (amanaapa.m) to others, (b) which he
knows to be true,
factual, but unprofitable, unpleasant and disagreeable to others,
(c) which he knows to be
untrue, lacking in fact, unprofitable, though pleasant and
agreeable to others, and (d)
which he knows to be unprofitable, though true, factual, pleasant
and agreeable to others,
and that he would assert at a proper time a statement (a) which
he knows to be
true, factual and profitable, though unpleasant and disagreeable
to others and (b) which
he knows to be true, factual, profitable, pleasant and agreeable
to others. And the
Buddha's sound reason and purpose in justifying this attitude
culminates in the statement
. It is that the Tathaagata has infinite compassion for the sake
of all living
beings." From the above passages it appears that special
emphasis is laid on a
high estimation of the relationship of truth to its utility, which
further shows the
coherence and consistency between the doctrines themselves and
their practical utilization
on the part of the believers 'Now, brahmin, I declare: one should
not speak of such things
seen, heard, thought and known-, by saying which, unprofitable
things increase and
profitable things decrease. Contrarily, one should speak of such
thought and known-, by saying which, unprofitable things decrease
and profitable things
Thus, not everything was revealed
and taught by the Buddha
to his disciples, but only those things that he considered
profitable, benevolent, useful
and good for them. 'Monks much more in number are those things
which I have realized and
have not revealed to you. Only few are the things I have revealed.
And why, monks, have I
not revealed them? Because they are not profitable and do not
conduce to the principles of
holy life, aversion detachment elimination (of desire),
knowledge, enlightenment and salvation.' With his
compassionate purpose of promoting
human interest and welfare-material, moral and spiritual-, the
Buddha, too, recognized
human dignity and free choice and never wanted blind followers of
his authority, who would
accept and carry out his instruction without examining, testing
and trying its value,
necessity and reason. He encouraged people to follow him, not
for the sake of
himself and not merely because of their faith in a claim of
his 'Omniscience' but
of their own free will, experimentation and insight into the truth
of his teaching and,
above all, because of their individual interest and welfare. 'Now,
look you, Kaalaamas, be
ye not misled by report or tradition or hearsay, nor by the
authority of the Collection,
nor by mere reasoning, nor by logic, nor by examination of
reasons, nor after reflection
on and approval of some theories, nor because it has a fitting (bhavya)
out of consideration; "The recluse is our teacher' ...But,
Kaalaamas, whenever you
know for yourselves: 'These things (dhamma) are ...
blameworthy ... to the wise,
these things, when performed and undertaken, conduce to loss and
do you reject them...But if at any time you know of yourselves:
'These things are
salutary, blameless and praiseworthy to the wise, these things,
when performed and
undertaken, conduce to well-being and happiness,'-then, Kaalaamas,
do ye undertake them
and abide therein...' When asked by King Pasenadi as to
whether there is any quality (dhamma)
by which man is able to acquire and maintain both kinds of
welfare in this life and in
the life to come, the Buddha replies, "Surely, Mahaaraaja,
diligence (appamaada) is
the one quality by which man can acquire and maintain welfare in
tins very life and m the
fife to come..." and in addition he utters the following
Whoso to length of days aspires,
To beauty, or to heaven, or to the joys
Of the highborn, if he in virtuous deeds
Shows diligence, he wins the wise man's praise.
He that is wise and diligent doth win
Twofold advantage: wins that which is good
In this life and wins good in life to come.
The strong in mind doth win the name of Wise,
Because he grasps wherein his vantage lies.'
The Buddha's Attitude towards
Human Value: the Exaltation of Human Will, Effort and Dignity
As observed above, from Buddhist
ethics certain concepts
can be derived: that there is a continuity of human personality
the value of which should
be accepted primarily in the existence itself; that the process of
ethical concern with
human personality is such that the avoidance of evil and
cultivation of good along with
the purification of the mind tends to make man and his life better
and happier; that there
is an assertion of a state or the final goal with the means of
attaining it-the state of
perfection, ultimate freedom and bliss to be obtained only when
man's mind is absolutely
pure and cleansed of all defilements; and that there is a
possibility of a human freewill,
effort and potentiality to deal with the concepts, mentioned
Concerning the above principles,
we find in the original
texts the Buddha facing on the one hand the theistic doctrine and
on the other the
materialistic doctrines including fatalism. The former may imply
that the world including
human beings and their duties is designed, created and determined
by the Supreme Deity,
that all events are predetermined and controlled by Him, and that,
therefore, in such a
situation He is absolute and ultimately responsible for all human
deeds-good and evil-,
and experiences-happiness and suffering-; that in his present and
future condition man is
incapable of helping and saving himself without the Divine Grace
since human beings become
corrupted or doomed or emancipated only by the Divine Will and
Grace and, moreover, that
man's initiative, potentiality, will and effort as well as his
fate and destiny entirely
depend upon the Creator. The theistic standpoint (Issaranimimaanavaada)
illustrated by a statement such as 'He is the Great Brahmaa, the
Supreme, the Omnipotent (abhibhuu
anabhibhuuto), the Omniscient (a~n~nadatthudaso), the
Ruler (vasavatti), the
Lord (issaro), the Maker (katttaa), the Creator (nimmata)..
Father (pittaa) of all that are and are to be. All beings
are His creation... and
at His Will all beings come into existence,' and such as
'Whatsoever happiness or
suffering (sukham vaa dukkha.m vaa) or the state of neither
suffering nor happiness
mankind (purisa.puggalo) experiences, all that is due to
the creation of the
Lord.' According to the materialistic doctrines, a human being
is simply built up of
the four elements of earth, fire, water and air and of nothing
else: at the time of
dissolution, whatever is composite, including human personality,
is reduced to the primary
elements: there are no moral values, good and evil deeds, nor
their results: all events
are strictly determined by physical constitution and natural
forces. For Fatalism (sa.msaara-suddhivaada:
lit. the theory of Purification, through
transmigration), Non-causationalism (ahetukavaada),,and
Non-actionalism (akiriyavaada), human beings will after
an allotted period of
transmigration automatically come to the end of this suffering;
there is neither cause
'nor condition for the depravity or the rectitude of human beings;
the attainment of any
given condition, of any character, does not depend on human act,
will to act and effort;
man is devoid of individual action, of human potentiality, of
endeavour, strength and effort (natthi attakaaro natthi
purisakaaro, natthi bala.m,
viriya.m, purisaparakkamo), there is neither human action nor
will to act nor effect
of action nor efficacy of action, and thus man cannot help
As the expounder of the law of
action, the Buddha
criticizes the doctrines outlined above. His criticism of the
theistic doctrine mainly
focuses on the following grounds:
a) If it is so (i.e. according to
the theistic standpoint
quoted above), then it is due to God's creation (Issaranimmaanahetu)
people commit murder, theft, and unchaste deeds; it is due to
God's creation that they are
covetous, malevolent and hold false views. Moreover, for those who
uphold the belief in
God's creation, there is neither human will nor effort nor
necessity to do this nor
necessity to refrain from doing this (by themselves).
b) If the creatures experience
happiness and suffering due
to God's creation, then surely they are created by an evil God in
that even now they
continually experience such painful, suvere and sharp
c) If the Lord designs the life of
the entire world, the
glory and the misery, the good and the evil deeds being prevalent
in this world, then God
alone is responsible, and man is but an instrument of His
d) And therefore, if Brahmaa were
the Lord of the whole
world and the Absolute Creator of all beings, then why has He
ordained misfortune in the
world? Why did He not make this whole world happy?... For what
purpose and reason has He
unjustly created the world with deceit, falsehood, oppression,
transgression and conceit?
Or the Lord Himself is of evil nature in that He has ordained
injustice and the like,
where there should have been justice and the like.
Since Buddhism is atheistic, there
is no room for the
belief in the creation of God or in the Divine Grace, both from
the ontological and the
ethical points of view. "It is a system that knows no God or God's
Grace and refuses
any efficacy to prayer and sacrifices," Huxley says, "but it bids
men look to
nothing but their own efforts for reaching the goal." In
we may observe that the Buddha is a realist and rationalist 
who claimed to see
'things as they are (yathaaibhuta.m) and to look at things
through the eyes of a
realist: 'I would treat night as night and day as day.' He
frankly accepted 'man as
man' in the world of conditional existence, not determined by
something beyond man, but by
himself alone, whose present and future lies in his own hands, who
responsibility for his own destiny and who is capable of improving
his life and attaining
the emancipation. In this aspect, the Buddha recognized 'human
value' in all respects.
Conspicuous in this connection is his exaltation of 'human will,
effort and potentiality
latent in man.' He asserted that man possesses an element of
initial effort (aarabbhadhaatu),
personal action (purisakaaro) and own actions (attakaaro),
there are in man the elements of exertion (nikkamadhaatu), of
of strength (thaamadhaatu) of preseverance (.thitidhaatu),
enterprise (upakkamadhaatu) which make him act of his own
accord in various
As far as one's personality and
human value are concerned,
one is advised to develop them, without referring to the so-called
supernatural grace, on
the one hand, and without asserting on the other hand the
materialistic ideology which
absolutely denies human survival, recompense and responsibility as
well as moral and
spiritual values and obligations. Instead, through the above
elements, one should prevent
the arising of evil things that have not arisen, eliminate those
which have already
arisen, make arise good things which have not arisen, and
preserve, increase, fully
develop, cultivate and perfect those which have arisen. The
mental, verbal and bodily
acts of man make moral responsibility a reality and
self-development a practical
possibility, ennobling his nature and regulating his future
betterment. Man is what he is
and acts because of what he can make of himself by the exercise of
his own dignity, will,
effort and potentiality. This is what is often emphasized in the
statements: One is one's
own refuge ... ; by his own well-tamed self, a man gains a refuge
which is hard to
gain,' 'evil is done by oneself alone: one is defiled by
oneself: by oneself alone is
evil left undone: by oneself` alone one is purified: purity and
impurity depend on
oneself: none can purify another, you yourselves must put
forth exertion; the
Tathaagatas are only the guides,' 'live ye as islands unto
yourselves, as refuges unto
yourselves; live with the Norm as your island and as your refuge,
taking no other as your
By mere wish, hope or even idle
prayer, one can in no way
attain what one wishes and hopes for; but only by exercising one's
own energy, actualizing
one's own potentiality and applying oneself to what is desired one
can attain what one
wants. "If, Vaase.t.tha, this River Aciravati were full of
water even to the brim
and overflowing, and a man with business on the other side ...
should come up and want to
cross over, and he, standing on this bank, should invoke the other
bank, and say, 'Come
hither, oh further bank! Come over to this side!, would the
further bank ... by reason of
that man's invoking and praying and hoping and praising come over
to this side?"
"Certainly not." "In just the same way, Vaase.t.tha do the
omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a
bramin and adopting the
practice of those qualities which make a man non-brahmin, say
thus, 'Inda we call upon
Soma ... Varu.na ... Isaana ... Pajaapati... brahmaa...we call
upon', verily, that those
brahmins ... by reason of their invoking, praying and hoping and
praising .... should
become united with the Brahmaa - verily, such a condition of
things can in no wise
be." We read elsewhere that there are five things in the world
which are welcome, sought after, desirable and lovely but hard to
get, namely, human and
heavenly long life, beauty, happiness, fame and the heavenly
worlds. These things are not
to be achieved either by vows or prayers, declared the Buddha;
for, if they were, then why
would any one languish here? Thus, to achieve long life and so on,
there is no use for a
noble disciple in yearning for them through prayer or invocation.
But the way and means
that lead to these things must be wayfared and by doing so he will
be a winner of these
things. How highly the Buddha evaluated human potentiality and
effort may be deduced
from the following statement: 'Gladly would I be reduced to skin
and sinews and bones and
let my body's flesh and blood dry up; as long as that which can be
reached by human
strength, by human energy and by human striving has not been
reached, so long there will
be no resting place for my (human) energy.'
In this aspect, man is the creator
of his own
world, the master of his own life, the controller of his own fate
and de tiny under the
causal law of action (kamma); man's condition his station in life,
his sorrow and
happiness and so on-depending upon his own deeds under his
own responsibility. The
merit or demerits of actions performed by man accumulate, and, in
the course of time,
acquire a vital potency. In this connection Buddhism encourages
the earnest pursuit of a
course of go action for the betterment of moral existence of
mankind and strengthens human
potentiality to succeed in striving after human welfare and
well-being. The Buddha claimed
to be on of the teachers of action, of the efficacy of action, of
energy an energetic will
to do so. He severely criticized the philosophic theories of
materialism, fatalism as
well as non-actionism pointing out that they give a false sense of
security to man corrupt
them and encourage complacency, denying the human value of
potentiality, will and effort
as well as human morality. He especially rebuked an expounder of
non-actionism as born for
the detriment and loss of very many people and compared him to a
fisherman casting his net
at the mouth of a river for the destruction of many fish. 'I
do not declare, monks,
that o intentional actions done and accumulated there can be a
wiping out without
experiencing, more or less in one way or another (the result
thereof), whether it
would arise in this visible state or in some other state
according to the Buddha, a doer of good experiences good, while a
doer of evil experiences
evil, just as one who sows the seed reaps the fruit thereof.
Subha, the brahmin youth, asked
the Buddha, "What the
cause, the reason, that lowness and excellence are to be found
among human beings while
they are in this world? Why do we see some people with a short
lifetime, others with a
long one; some people with many, others with few afflictions; some
ugly, others beautiful;
some of little account, others of great account; some who are
poor, others who are
wealthy; some who are of low families, others who are of high
families; some who are weak
in wisdom, others who are full of wisdom?" The Buddha declared:
'Actions are one's
own, living beings are heirs to their actions, they have actions
as their womb, their kin,
their controllers; action divides living beings..." Thus,
whatever actions men
do, either good or bad, they are bound to them  and
responsible for them. This
idea is illustrated in another place, for instance,'...Whatever
man is a taker of life, a
taker of what is not given, a wrong-doer in respect of sensual
conduct, a liar ... of
perverted view,-however much a great multitude of people,
gathering and thronging
together, might pray and praise and escort him with uplifted
palms, saying: 'This man,
when his body breaks up after his death, will be born into the
happy lot, into the
heavenly world...', yet would that man be born into the woeful
lot, into the downfall,
into hell.' In its rational, realistic aspect, the law of
action says: 'None is by
birth a brahmin, by birth a non-brahmin: by deed is one a brahmin,
by deed a non-brahmin;
by deed is one a farmer, or an artisan, or a trader, by deed is
one a servant, or a thief,
or a warrior, or a celebrant, and even so a king is one by deed:
the wise perceive the
'law of action' as it is as well as the ripening of actions,
because they understand the i
principle of Co-origination (or, Origination in dependence): (thus)
action the world moves and by action mankind moves, too; just as
the axle of (the wheel
of) a rolling chariot (is bound to move), so living beings
existing in bondage are held by
Notes and References
 Cf. D. I. 76; S. IV.
83; D. III.
212; S.Radhakrishnan and P.T. Raju, The Concept of Man, p.
 D. I.
18; M. I. 327; J.
 S.Radhakrishnan and P.T. Raju,
The Concept of Man,
 D. III. 68ff.
 C.A.F. Rhys Davids, A
Manual of Buddhism, p.
 C.A.F. Rhys Davids, Gotama
the Man, p. 7.
 M. I. 481f; II. 211.
 A. III. 103ff.
 S. I. 75.
 The Commentary on the
Dhammapada, III. 137.
 S. I. 75.
 The Commentary on the
Dhammapada, III. 235f.
 The Commentary on the
Dhammapada, III. 237; D.
 Vin. I. 8; M. I.
 World Fellowships of the
 Cp. R.A. Gard, Buddhism, p.
 C. Humphers, Buddhism, p.
 S. I. 89ff; A. III.
 S. I. 105; Vin. I.
 A. V. 194.
 Cp. A.K. Warder, Indian
Buddhism, p. 64.
 Cp. G.C. Pande, Studies in
Origins of Buddhism,
 M. I. 21, 83. cp. MLS.
I. 27, 1000. See
also A. II, 147; It. p. 78.
 M. I. 395.
 A. II. 173f.
 S. V. 438.
 Govinda, Psychological
Attitude of Early Buddhist
Philosophy, p. 67.
 M. I. 465, 468.
 M. I. 483.
 A. I. 190ff.
 S. I. 86.
 D. I. 18.
 A. I. 173f.
 D. I. 55; M. I.
515; J. VI.
 D. I. 53; A. I.
33f; M. I. 516.
 A. I. 174.
 M. II. 222.
 J. V. 328.
 J. VI. 208.
 A. Huxley, Romances
 D. III. 81; M. II.
 M. I. 21.
 A. III. 337f. Cf. A.
 S. V. 268.
 Commentary on the
Dhammapada, III. 148.
 ibid, p. 157.
 ibid, p. 148.
 D. II. 100; III. 58; S.
III. 42; V.
 A. IV. 125f.
 D. I. 244ff.
 A. III. 47f.
 M. I. 481; A. I.
50; S. II. 28.
 A. I. 287.
 A. I. 33f.
 A. V. 292.
 S. I. 227.
 M. III. 202f.
 A. II. 74, 186.
 A. V. 288ff.
 S. IV. 312f.
 M. II. 196. See also M.
I. 285ff; A.
II, 230ff; S. I. 72ff.