pabbajjá: lit. 'the going forth', or
more fully stated, 'the going forth from home to the homeless life' of a monk (agárasmá
anagáriyam pabbajjá), consists in severing all family and social ties to live the
pure life of a monk, in order to realize the goal of final deliverance pointed out by the
Enlightened One. Thus, p. has become the name for admission as a sámanera,
or novice, i.e. as a candidate for the Order of Bhikkhus, or monks.
See Going Fonh, by Sumana
Samanera (WHEEL 27/28) - Ordination in Theraváda Buddhism (WHEEL 56).
knowledge', refers to the recollected mental image obtained in concentration, or to any
inner experience just passed, as for instance, any absorption (jhána q.v.), or any
supermundane path, or fruition of the path, etc. (s. ariya-puggala). As it is said:
"At the end of fruitional consciousness, consciousness sinks into the subconscious
stream of existence (bhavanga-sota, q.v.). Then, breaking off the stream of
existence, mental advertence (manodvárávajjana) arises at the mind-door, for the
purpose of retrospecting the (just passed) path-moment. Now, as soon as this stage has
passed, 7 moments of impulsive consciousness (javana-citta), one after the other,
flash up while retrospecting the path. After they again have sunk into the subconscious
stream, there arise, for the purpose of retrospecting the fruition of the path the moments
of advertence and impulsion, during whose arising the monk is retrospecting the path,
retrospecting the fruition, retrospecting the abandoned defilements, retrospecting the
still remaining defilements, retrospecting Nibbána as object .... 'This blessing have I
attained' .... 'This and that defilement still remains in me' .... 'This object have I
beheld in my mind', etc." (Vis.M. XXII).
paccavekkhana-suddhi: 'purity of
reflection', is a name for wise consideration in using the 4 requisites allowed to the
monk, i.e. robes, food, dwelling, and medicine; s. síla (4).
paccaya: 'condition', is something
on which something else, the so-called 'conditioned thing', is dependent, and without
which the latter cannot be. Manifold are the ways in which one thing, or one occurrence,
may be the condition for some other thing, or occurrence. In the Patthána, the last book
of the Abhidhamma Pitaka (comprising 6 large vols. in the Siamese edition), these 24 modes
of conditionality are enumerated and explained, and then applied to all conceivable mental
and physical phenomena and occurrences, and thus their conditioned nature is demonstrated.
The first two volumes of the Patthána
have been translated into English by the Venerable U Nárada (Múlapatthána Sayadaw) of
Burma, under the title Conditional Relations (Published by the Páli Text Society, London
1969, 1981). For a synopsis of this work, see Guide VII.
The 24 modes of conditionality are:
1. Root condition : hetu paccaya
2. Object " : árammana "
3. Predominance " : adhipati
4. Priority " : anantara
5. Contiguity " : samanantara
6. Co-nascence " : sahajáta
7. Mutuality " : aññamañña
8. Support " : nissaya "
9. Decisive Support " : upanissaya
10. Pre-nascene " : purejáta
11. Post-nascene " : pacchájáta
12. Repitition " : ásevana
13. Karma " : kamma "
14. Karma-result " : vipáka
15. Nutriment " : áhára
16. Faculty " : indriya "
17. Jhána " : jhána "
18. Path " : magga "
19. Associaton " : sampayutta
20. Dissociation " : vippayutta
21. Presence " : atthi "
22. Absence " : natthi "
23. Disappearance " : vigata
24. Non-disappearance " : avigata
(1) Root-condition (hetu-paccaya)
is that condition that resembles the root of a tree. Just as a tree rests on its root, and
remains alive only as long as its root is not destroyed, similarly all karmically
wholesome and unwholesome mental states are entirely dependent on the simultaneity and
presence of their respective roots, i.e, of greed (lobha), hate (dosa),
delusion (moha), or greedlessness (alobha), hatelessness (adosa),
undeludedness (amoha). For the definition of these 6 roots, s. múla.
"The roots are a condition by way of
root for the (mental) phenomena associated with a root, and for the corporeal phenomena
produced thereby (e.g. for bodily expression)" (Patth).
(2) Object-condition (árammana-paccaya)
is called something which, as object, forms the condition for consciousness and mental
phenomena. Thus, the physical object of sight consisting in colour and light
('light-wave'), is the necessary condition and the sine qua non for the arising of
eye-consciousness (cakkhu-viññána), etc.; sound ('sound wave') for
ear-consciousness (sotá-viññána), etc.; further, any object arising in the mind
is the condition for mind-consciousness (mano-viññána). The mind-object may be
anything whatever, corporeal or mental, past, present or future, real or imaginary.
(3) Predominance-condition (adhipati-paccaya)
is the term for 4 things, on the preponderance and predominance of which are dependent the
mental phenomena associated with them, namely: concentrated intention (chanda,
q.v.), energy (viriya, q.v.), consciousness (citta) and investigation
(vímamsá). In one and the same state of consciousness, however, only one of these 4
phenomena can be predominant at a time. "Whenever such phenomena as consciousness and
mental concomitants are arising by giving preponderance to one of these 4 things, then
this phenomenon is for the other phenomena a condition by way of predominance"
(Patth.). Cf. iddhi-páda.
(4-5) Proximity and contiguity (or
immediacy)-condition (anantara and samanantara-paccaya) - both being
identical - refer to any state of consciousness and mental phenomena associated with them,
which are the conditions for the immediately following stage in the process of
consciousness. For example, in the visual process, eye-consciousness is for the
immediately following mindelement - performing the function of receiving the visible
object - a condition by way of contiguity; and so is this mind-element for the next
following mind-consciousness element, performing the function of investigating the object,
etc. Cf. viññána-kicca.
(6) Co-nascence condjtion (sahajáta-paccaya),
i.e. condition by way of simultaneous arising, is a phenomenon that for another one forms,
a condition in such a way that, simultaneously with its arising, also the other thing must
arise. Thus, for instance, in one and the same moment each of the 4 mental groups
(feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness) is for the 3 other groups a
condition by way of co-nascence or co-arising; or again each of the 4 physical elements
(solid, liquid, heat, motion) is such a condition for the other 3 elements. Only at the
moment of conception in the mother's womb does corporeality (physical base of mind) serve
for the 4 mental groups as a condition by way of conascence.
(7) Condition by way of mutuality
(aññámañña-paccaya). All the just mentioned associated and co-nascent mental
phenomena, as well as the 4 physical elements, are, of course, at the same time also
conditioned by way of mutuality, "just like three sticks propped up one by
another." The 4 mental groups are one for another a condition by way of mutuality. So
also are the 4 elements, and also mentality and corporeality at the moment of conception.
(nissaya-paccaya). This condition refers either to a pre-nascent (s. 10) or co-nascent
(s. 6) phenomenon which is aiding other phenomena in the manner of a foundation or base,
just as the trees have the earth as their foundation, or as the oil-painting rests on the
canvas. In this way, the 5 sense-organs and the physical base of the mind are for the
corresponding 6 kinds of consciousness a prenascent, i.e. previously arisen, condition by
way of support. Further all co-nascent (s. 6) phenomena are mutually (s. 7) conditioned by
each other by way of support.
(9) Decisive-support (or inducement)
condition (upanissaya-paccaya) is threefold, namely (a) by way of object (árammanúpanissaya-paccaya),
(b) by way of proximity (anantarúpanissaya), (c) natural decisive support (pakatupanissaya).
These conditions act as strong inducement or cogent reason.
(a) Anything past, present or future,
corporeal or mental, real or imaginary, may, as object of our thinking, become a decisive
support, or strong inducement, to moral, immoral or karmically neutral states of mind.
Evil things, by wrong thinking about them, become an inducement to immoral life; by right
thinking, an inducement to moral life. But good things may be an inducement not only to
similarly good things, but also to bad things, such as self-conceit, vanity, envy, etc.
(b;) is identical with proximity condition
(c) Faith, virtue, etc., produced in one's
own mind, or the influence of climate, food, etc., on one's body and mind, may act as
natural and decisive support-conditions. Faith may be a direct and natural inducement to
charity, virtue to mental training, etc.; greed to theft, hate to murder; unsuitable food
and climate to ill-health; friends to spiritual progress or deterioration.
(10) Pre-nascence-condition (purejáta-paccaya)
refers to something previously arisen, which forms a base for something arising later on.
For example, the 5 physical sense-organs and the physical base of mind, having already
arisen at the time of birth, form the condition for the consciousness arising later, and
for the mental phenomena associated therewith.
(pacchá-játa-paccaya) refers to consciousness and the phenomena therewith
associated, because they are - just as is the feeling of hunger- a necessary condition for
the preservation of this already arisen body.
(ásevana-paccaya) refers to the karmical consciousness, in which each time the
preceding impulsive moments (javana-citta, q.v.) are for all the succeeding ones a
condition by way of repetition and frequency, just as in learning by heart, through
constant repetition, the later recitation becomes gradually easier and easier.
(13) Karma-condition (kamma-paccaya).
The pre-natal karma (i.e karma-volitions, kamma-cetaná, in a previous birth) is
the generating condition (cause) of the 5 sense-organs, the fivefold sense-consciousness,
and the other karma-produced mental and corporeal phenomena in a later birth. - Karmical
volition is also a condition by way of karma for the co-nascent mental phenomena
associated therewith, but these phenomena are in no way karma-results.
(vipáka-paccaya). The karma-resultant 5 kinds of sense-consciousness are a condition
by way of karma-result for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.
(15) Nutriment-condition (áhára-paccaya).
For the 4 nutriments, s. áhára.
(16) Faculty-condition (indriya-paccaya).
This condition applies to 20 faculties (indriya, q.v.), leaving out No. 7 and 8
from the 22 faculties. Of these 20 faculties, the 5 physical sense-organs (1 - 5), in
their capacity as faculties, form a condition only for uncorporeal phenomena
(eye-consciousness etc.); physical vitality (6) and all the remaining faculties, for the
co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.
(17) Jhána-condition (jhána-paccaya)
is a name for the 7 so-called jhána-factors, as these form a condition to the co-nascent
mental and corporeal phenomena, to wit: (1) thought-conception (vitakka), (2)
discursive thinking (vicára), (3) interest (píti), (4) joy (sukha),
(5) sadness (domanassa), (6) indifference (upekkhá), (7) concentration (samádhi).
(For definition s. Páli terms. )
1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in 4 classes of
greedy consciousness (s. Tab. I. 22-25); 1, 2, 5, 7 in hateful consciousness (ib. 30, 31);
1, 2, 6, 7 in the classes of deluded consciousness (ib. 32, 33).
This condition does not only apply to jhána
alone, but also to the general intensifying ('absorbing') impact of these 7 factors.
(18) Path-condition (magga-paccaya) refers
to the 12 path-factors, as these are for the karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental
phenomena associated with them, a way of escape from this or that mental constitution,
namely: (1) knowledge (paññá = sammáditthi, right understanding), (2) (right or
wrong) thought-conception (vitakka), (3) right speech (sammá-vácá), (4)
right bodily action (sammá-kammanta), (5) right livelihood (sammá-ájíva),
(6) (right or wrong) energy (viriya), (7) (right or wrong) mindfulness (sati),
(8) (right or wrong) concentration (samádhi), (9) wrong views (miccháditthi),
(10) wrong speech (micchá-vácá), (11) wrong bodily action (micchá-kammanta),
(12) wrong livelihood (micchá-ájíva). Cf. magga.
(19) Association-condition (sampayutta-paccaya)
refers to the co-nascent (s. 6) and mutually (s. 7) conditioned 4 mental groups (khandha),
"as they aid each other by their being associated, by having a common physical base,
a common object, and by their arising and disappearing simultaneously" (Patth. Com.).
(20) Dissociation-condition (vippayutta-paccaya)
refers to such phenomena as aid other phenomena by not baving the same physical base (eye,
etc.) and objects. Thus corporeal phenomena are for mental phenomena, and conversely, a
condition by way of dissociation, whether co-nascent or not.
(2l) Presence-condition (atthi-paccaya)
refers to a phenomenon - being pre-nascent or co-nascent - which through its presence is a
condition for other phenomena. This condition applies to the conditions Nos. 6, 7, 8, 10,
(22) Absence-condition (natthi-paccaya)
refers to consciousness, etc., which has just passed, and which thus forms the necessary
condition for the immediately following stage of consciousness by giving it an opportunity
to arise. Cf. No. 4.
(23) Disappearance-condition (vigata-paccaya)
is identical with No. 22.
(24) Non-disappearance-condition (avigata-paccaya)
is identical with No. 21.
These 24 conditions should be known
thoroughly for a detailed understanding of that famous formula of the dependent
origination (paticcasamuppáda, q.v.). Cf. Fund. III, Guide p. 117 ff. (App.) .
See The Significance of
Dependent Origination, by Nyanatiloka (WHEEL 140).
consisting in the wise use of the monk's requisities'; s. síla (4).
enlightenment'; s. the foll. and bodhi.
'Independently Enlightened One'; or Separately or Individually (=pacceka)
Enlightened One (renderings by 'Silent' or 'Private Buddha' are not very apt). This is a
term for an Arahat (s. ariya-puggala) who has realized Nibbána without having
heard the Buddha's doctrine from others. He comprehends the 4 Noble Truths individually
(pacceka), independent of any teacher, by his own effort. He has, however, not the
capacity to proclaim the Teaching effectively to others, and therefore does not become a
'Teacher of Gods and Men', a Perfect or Universal Buddha (sammá-sambuddha). -
Paccekabuddhas are described as frugal of speech, cherishing solitude. According to
tradition, they do not arise while the Teaching of a Perfect Buddha is known; but for
achieving their rank after many aeons of effort, they have to utter an aspiration before a
Canonical references are few; Pug. 29
(defin.); A. II, 56; in M. 116, names of many Paccekabuddhas are given; in D. 16 they are
said to be worthy of a thúpa (dagoba); the Treasure-Store Sutta
(Nidhikhandha Sutta, Khp.) mentions pacceka-bodhi; the C. Nidd. ascribes to
individual Paccekabuddhas the verses of the Rhinoceros Sutta (Khaggavisána Sutta, Sn.) -
See The Paccekabuddha,
by Ria Kloppenborg (WHEEL 305/307).
is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
absorption', is an absorption used as a foundation, or starting point, for the higher
spiritual powers (abhiññá, q.v.), or for insight (vipassaná, q.v.),
leading to the supermundane paths (s. ariya-puggala). The foundation for the former
is the 4th absorption; for insight, however, any absorption is suitable. For details, s. samatha-vipassaná.
pada-parama: 'one for whom the
words are the utmost attainment'. "Whoever, though having learned much, speaking
much, knowing many things by heart, and discoursing much, has not penetrated the truth,
such a man is called by that name" (Pug. 163).
padhána: 'effort.' The 4 right
efforts (samma-padhána), forming the 6th stage of the 8-fold Path (i.e. sammá-váyáma,
s. magga) are: (1) the effort to avoid (samvara-padhána), (2) to overcome (pahána-padhána),
(3) to develop (bhávaná-padhána), (4) to maintain (anurakkhana-padhána), i.e.
(1) the effort to avoid unwholesome (akusala) states, such as evil thoughts, etc.
(2) to overcome unwholesome states, (3) to develop wholesome (kusala) states, such
as the 7 elements of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), (4) to maintain the wholesome
"The monk rouses his will to avoid
the arising of evil, unwholesome things not yet arisen ... to overcome them ... to develop
wholesome things not yet arisen ... to maintain them, and not to let them disappear, but
to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development. And he
makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives" (A. IV, 13).
(1) "What now, o monks, is the effort
to avoid? Perceiving a form, or a sound, or an odour, or a taste, or a bodily or mental
impression, the monk neither adheres to the whole nor to its parts. And he strives to ward
off that through which evil and unwholesome things might arise, such as greed and sorrow,
if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his
senses. This is called the effort to avoid.
(2) "What now is the effort to
overcome? The monk does not retain any thought of sensual lust, or any other evil,
unwholesome states that may have arisen; he abandons them, dispels them, destroys them,
causes them to disappear. This is called the effort to overcome.
(3) "What now is the effort to
develop? The monk develops the factors of enlightenment, bent on solitude, on detachment,
on extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: mindfulness (sati), investigation
of the law (dhamma-vicaya), energy (viriya), rapture (píti),
tranquillity (passaddhi), concentraton (samádhi), equanimity (upekkhá).
This is called the effort to develop.
(4) "What now is the effort to
maintain? The monk keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration, such as
the mental image of a skeleton, a corpse infested by worms, a corpse blueblack in colour,
a festering corpse, a corpse riddled with holes, a corpse swollen up. This is called the
effort to maintain" (A. IV, 14).
padhániyanga: 'elements of
effort', are the following 5 qualities: faith, health, sincerity, energy, and wisdom (M.
85, 90; A. V. 53). See párisuddhi-padhániyanga.
namely, of mental concomitants (káya-páguññatá), and of consciousness (citta-páguññatá),
are 2 mental phenomena associated with all wholesome consciousness. Cf. Tab. II.
pahána: 'overcoming', abandoning.
There are 5 kinds of overcoming: (1) overcoming by repression (vikkhambhana-pahána),
i.e. the temporary suspension of the 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.) during the
absorptions, (2) overcoming by the opposite (tadanga-pahána), (3) overcoming by
destruction (samuccheda-pahána), (4) overcoming by tranquillization (patipassaddhi-pahána),
(5) overcoming by escape (nissarana-pahána).
(1) "Among these, 'overcoming by
repression' is the pushing back of adverse things, such as the 5 mental hindrances
(nívarana q.v), etc., through this or that mental concentration (samádhi,
q.v.), just as a pot thrown into moss-clad water pushes the moss aside....
(2) " 'Overcoming by the opposite' is
the overcoming by opposing this or that thing that is to be overcome, by this or that
factor of knowledge belonging to insight (vipassaná q.v.), just as a lighted lamp
dispels the darkness of the night. In this way, the personality-belief (sakkáyaditthi,
s. ditthi) is overcome by determining the mental and corporeal phenomena ... the
view of uncausedness of existence by investigation into the conditions... the idea of
eternity by contemplation of impermanency ... the idea of happiness by contemplation of
(3) "If through the knowledge of the
noble path (s. ariyapuggala) the fetters and other evil things cannot continue any
longer, just like a tree destroyed by lightning, then such an overcoming is called
'overcoming by destruction' " (Vis.M. XXII, 110f.).
(4) When, after the disappearing of the
fetters at the entrance into the paths, the fetters, from the moment of fruition (phala)
onwards, are forever extinct and stilled, such overcoming is called the 'overcoming by
(5) "The 'overcoming by escape' is
identical with the extinction and Nibbána" (Pts.M. I. 27). (App.).
pahána-pariññá; s. pariññá.
pain, feeling of: s. vedaná.
pakati-síla: 'natural or genuine
morality', is distinct from those outward rules of conduct laid down for either laymen or
monks. Those later are the so-called 'prescribed morality' (paññáttisíla). Cf. síla.
inducement'; s. paccaya.
palibodha: 'obstacles', is the term
for the following things if they obstruct the monk in the strict practice of a subject of
meditation: a crowded monastery, travelling, relatives, association with lay folk, gifts,
pupils, repairs in the monastery, sickness, study, magical power. The latter, however, may
become an obstacle only in developing insight (vipassaná, q.v.). See Vis.M. III,
29ff. - (App.)
pamsukúlik'anga: the 'vow to wear
only robes made from picked-up rags', is one of the ascetic rules of purification; s. dhutanga.
pánátipátá veramaní: 'abstaining
from the killing of living beings', is the first of the 5 moral rules binding upon all
Buddhists; s. sikkhápada.
to the 5-sense-doors'; s. viññána-kicca.
pañca-síla: s. sikkhápada.
existence', is a name for existence in the sensuous sphere (kámávacara), or in
the fine-material sphere (rúpávacara, s. avacara), since all the 5 groups
of existence (khandha, q.v.) are found there. In the immaterial sphere (arúpávacara,
s. avacara), however, only the 4 mental groups are found, and in the world of
unconscious beings (asaññá-satta, q.v.) only the one corporeality group. Cf eka-vokára-bhava
and catu-pañca-vokára-bhava; further s. avacara. - (App.: vokára).
questions'. "There are, o monks, 4 ways of answering questions: there are questions
requiring a direct answer; questions requiring an explanation; questions to be answered by
counter-questions; questions to be rejected (as wrongly put)." See D. 33; A. III, 68;
A. IV, 42.
knowledge, wisdom, insight', comprises a very wide field. The specific Buddhist knowledge
or wisdom, however, as part of the Noble Eightfold Path (magga, q.v.) to
deliverance, is insight (vipassaná, q.v.), i.e. that intuitive knowledge which
brings about the 4 stages of holiness and the realization of Nibbána (s. ariyapuggala),
and which consists in the penetration of the impermanency (anicca, q.v.), misery (dukkha,
s. sacca) and impersonality (anattá) of all forms of existence. Further
details, s. under tilakkhana.
With regard to the condition of its
arising one distinguishes 3 kinds of knowledge knowledge based on thinking
(cintá-mayá-paññá), knowledge based on learning (suta-mayá-paññá),
knowledge based on mental development (bhávaná-mayá-paññá) (D. 33).
" 'Based on thinking' is that
knowledge which one has accquired through one's own thinking, without having learnt it
from others. 'Based on learning' is that knowledge which one has heard from others and
thus acquired through learning. 'Based on mental development' is that knowledge which one
has acquired through mental development in this or that way, and which has reached the
stage of full concentration" (appaná, q.v.) (Vis.M. XIV).
Wisdom is one of the 5 mental faculties
(s. bala), one of the 3 kinds of training (sikkhá, q.v.), and one of the
perfections (s. páramí) For further details, s. vipassaná, and the
detailed exposition in Vis.M. XIV, 1-32.
paññatti -síla: 'prescribed
morality', is a name for the disciplinary rules of the monk or layman prescribed by the
Buddha, as distinguished from natural or genuine morality (pakati-síla; s. síla).
through wisdom' (or understanding'), signifies, according to Com. to A.V, 142, the wisdom
associated with the fruition of holiness (arahatta-phala). In Pug. 31 and similarly
in M. 70, it is said: "A monk may not have reached in his own person the 8
liberations (=jhána, q.v.), but through his wisdom the cankers have come to
extinction in him. Such a person is called wisdom-liberated" (paññá-vimutta). -
Com. to Pug.: "He may be one of five persons: either a practiser of bare insight (sukkha-vipassako,
q.v.), or one who has attained to Holiness after rising from one of the
absorptions." See S. XII, 7().
The term is often linked with ceto-vimutti
(q.v.), 'deliverance of mind'.