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sabba-loke anabhirati-saññá: 'contemplation on disinterestedness regarding the whole world', described in A. X., 60 in the following words: "If, Ananda, the monk gives up his tenacious clinging to the world, his firm grasping and his biases and inclinations of the mind, and turns away from these things, does not cling to them, this, Ananda, is called the contemplation on disinterestedness regarding the whole world."

sabbúpadhi-patinissagga: s. upadhi.

sacca: 'Truth'. - 1. On the 'two truths', conventional and ultimale, see paramattha.

2. 'The Four Noble Truths' (ariya-sacca) are the briefest synthesis of the entire teachings of Buddhism, since all those manifold doctrines of the threefold canon are, without any exception, included therein. They are: the truth of suffering, of the origin of suffering, of the extinction of suffering, and of the Eightfold Path leading to the extinction of suffering.

I. The 1st truth, briefly stated, teaches that all forms of existence whatsoever are unsatisfactory and subject to suffering (dukkha).

II. The 2nd truth teaches that all suffering, and all rebirth, is produced by craving (tanhá).

III. The 3rd truth teaches that extinction of craving necessarily results in extinction (nirodha) of rebirth and suffering, i.e. nibbána (q.v.).

IV. The 4th truth of the Eightfold Path (magga) indicates the means by which this extinction is attained.

The stereotype text frequently recurring in the Sutta Pitaka, runs as follows:

I. "But what, o monks, is the noble truth of suffering? Birth is suffering, decay is suffering, death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are suffering; in short, the 5 groups of existence connected with clinging are suffering (cf. dukkha, dukkhata).

II. ''But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to fresh rebirth and, bound up with lust and greed, now here, now there, finds ever fresh delight. It is the sensual craving (káma-tanhá), the craving for existence (bhava-tanhá), the craving for non-existence or self-annihilation (vibhava-tanhá).

III. "But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the extinction of suffering? It is the complete fading away and extinction of this craving, its forsaking and giving up, liberation and detachment from it.

IV. "But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the path leading to the extinction of suffering? It is the Noble Eightfold Path (ariya-atthangika-magga) that leads to the extinction of suffering, namely:

 

1. Right view (sammá-ditthi)

2. Right thought (sammá-sankappa)

III. Wisdom (paññá)

3. Right speech (sammá-vácá)

4. Right action (sammá-kammanta)

5. Right livelihood (sammd-djiva)

 

I. Morality (síla)

6. Right effort (sammá-váyáma)

7. Right mindfulness (sammá-sati)

8. Right concentration (sammá-samádhi)

 

II. Concentration (samádhi)

 

 

1. "What now, o monks, is right view (or right understanding)? It is the understanding of suffering, of the origin of suffering, of the extinction of suffering, and of the path leading to the extinction of suffering.

2. "What now, o monks, is right thought? It is a mind free from sensual lust, ill-will and cruelty.

3. "What now, o monks, is right speech? Abstaining from lying, tale-bearing, harsh words, and foolish babble (cf. tiracchánakathá).

4. "What now, o monks, is right action? Abstaining from injuring living beings, from stealing and from unlawful sexual intercourse (s. kámesu micchácára).

5. "What now, o monks, is right livelihood? If the noble disciple rejects a wrong living, and gains his living by means of right livelihood (s. magga, 5).

6. "What now, o monks, is right effort? If the disciple rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, demeritorious things that have not yet arisen; ... if he rouses his will to overcome the evil, demeritorious things that have already arisen; ... if he rouses his will to produce meritorious things that have not yet arisen; ... if he rouses his will to maintain the meritorious things that have already arisen and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development; he thus makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives (s. padhána).

7. "What now, o monks is right mindfulness? If the disciple dwells in contemplation of corporeality ... of feeling ... of mind ... of the mind-objects, ardent, clearly conscious, and mindful after putting away worldly greed and grief (s. satipatthána).

8. "What now, o monks, is right concentration? If the disciple is detached from sensual objects, detached from unwholesome things, and enters into the first absorption ... the second absorption ... the third absorption ... the fourth absorption" (s. jhána).

In the Buddha's first sermon, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, it is said that the first truth (suffering) is to be fully understood; the second truth (craving) to be abandoned; the third truth (Nibbána) to be realized; the fourth truth (the path) to be cultivated.

"The truth of suffering is to be compared with a disease, the truth of the origin of suffering with the cause of the disease, the truth of extinction of suffering with the cure of the disease, the truth of the path with the medicine" (Vis.M. XVI).

In the ultimate sense, all these 4 truths are to be considered as empty of a self, since there is no feeling agent, no doer, no liberated one. no one who follows along the path. Therefore it is said:

'Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found.

The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there.

Nibbána is, but not the man that enters it.

The path is, but no traveller on it is seen.

 

'The first truth and the second truth are empty

Of permanency, joy, of self and beauty;

The Deathless Realm is empty of an ego,

And free from permanency, joy and self, the path.'

(Vis.M. XVI)

 

It must be pointed out that the first truth does not merely refer to actual suffering, i.e. to suffering as feeling, but that it shows that, in consequence of the universal law of impermanency, all the phenomena of existence whatsoever, even the sublimest states of existence, are subject to change and dissolution, and hence are miserable and unsatisfactory; and that thus, without exception, they all contain in themselves the germ of suffering. Cf. Guide, p. 101f.

Regarding the true nature of the path, s. magga.

Literature: Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (in WHEEL 17 and BODHI LEAVES); M. 141; Sacca-Samyutta (S. LVI); Sacca Vibhanga; W. of B.; Vis.M. XVI: The Four Noble Truths by Francis Story (WHEEL 34/35); The Significance of the 4 Noble Truths by V. F. Gunaratna (WHEEL 123).

sacca-ñána: 'knowledge of the truth' (s. prec.), may be of 2 kinds: (1) knowledge consisting in understanding (anubodha-ñána) and (2) knowledge consisting in penetration (pativedha-ñána), i.e. realization. Cf. pariyatti.

"Amongst these, (1) 'knowledge consisting in understanding' is mundane (lokiya, q.v.), and its arising with regard to the extinction of suffering, and to the path, is due to hearsay etc. (therefore not due to one's realization of the supermundane path; s. ariya-puggala) (2) 'Knowledge consisting in penetration', however, is supermundane (lokuttara), with the extinction of suffering (= nibbána) as object, it penetrates with its functions the 4 truths (in one and the same moment), as it is said (S. LVI, 30): whosoever, o monks, understands suffering, he also understands the origin of suffering, the extinction of suffering, and the path leading to the extinction of suffering' " (Vis.M. XVI, 84). See visuddhi (end of article).

"Of the mundane kinds of knowledge, however, the knowledge of suffering by which (various) prejudices are overcome, dispels the personality-belief (sakkáya-dilthi, s. ditthi). The knowledge of the origin of suffering dispels the annihilation-view (uccheda-ditthi, s. ditthi); the knowledge of extinction of suffering, the eternity-view (sassata-ditthi, s. ditthi); the knowledge of the path, the view of inefficacy of action (akiriya-ditthi, s. ditthi)" (Vis.M. XVI, 85).

saccánulomika-ñána: anuloma-ñána (q.v.), puthujjana.

sacchikaraníyá dhammá: 'things to be realized'. Recollection of former states of existence is to be realized through remembrance (abhiññá 4; q.v.). The vanishing and reappearing of beings is to be realized through the divine eye (abhiññá 5; q.v.). The 8 deliverances (vimokkha, q.v.) are to be realized through the mental group (káya, here feeling, perception, mental formations; s. káya). The extinction of cankers is to be realized through insight (vipassaná).

saddhá: faith, confidence. A Buddhist is said to have faith if "he believes in the Perfect One's (the Buddha's) Enlightenment" (M 53; A.V, 2), or in the Three Jewels (s. ti-ratana), by taking his refuge in them (s. ti-sarana). His faith, however, should be "reasoned and rooted in understanding" (ákáravatá saddhá dassanamúlika; M. 47), and he is asked to investigate and test the object of his faith (M. 47, 95). A Buddhist's faith is not in conflict with the spirit of inquiry, and "doubt about dubitable things" (A. II, 65; S. XLII, 13) is admitted and inquiry into them is encouraged. The 'faculty of faith' (saddhindriya) should be balanced with that of wisdom (paññindriya; s. indriya-samatta). It is said: "A monk who has understanding, establishes his faith in accordance with that understanding" (S. XLVIII, 45). Through wisdom and understanding, faith becomes an inner certainty and firm conviction based on one's own experience.

Faith is called the seed (Sn. v. 77) of all wholesome states because, according to commentarial explanations, it inspires the mind with confidence (okappana, pasáda) and determination (adhimokkha), for 'launching out' (pakkhandhana; s. M. 122) to cross the flood of samsára.

Unshakable faith is attained on reaching the first stage of holiness, 'stream-entry' (sotápatti, s. ariyapuggala), when the fetter of sceptical doubt (vicikicchá; s. samyojana) is eliminated. Unshakable confidence (avecca-pasáda) in the Three Jewels is one of the characteristic qualities of the Stream-winner (sotápannassa angáni, q.v.).

Faith is a mental concomitant, present in all karmically wholesome, and its corresponding neutral, consciousness (s. Tab. II). It is one of the 4 streams of merit (puññadhárá, q.v.), one of the 5 spiritual faculties (indriya, q.v.), spiritual powers (bala, q.v.), elements of exertion (padhániyanga, q.v.) and one of the 7 treasures (dhana, q.v.).

See Faith in the Buddha's Teaching, by Soma Thera (WHEEL 262). "Does Saddhá mean Faith?'' by Ñánamoli Thera (in WHEEL 52/53).

saddhánusári and saddhá-vimutta: the 'faith-devoted and the 'faith-liberated', are two of the 7 kinds of noble disciples (s. ariya-puggala, B.).

sagga: 'heaven'; s. deva (heavenly heings).

sahajáta-paccaya: 'co-nascence', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

sahetuka-citta: s. hetu.

sakadágámí: the 'Once-returner': s. ariya-puggala, A.

sakka: the 'King of Gods' (devánam-inda), is the lord over the celestial beings in the heaven of the Thirty-Three' (távatimsa, s. deva).

sakkáya: 'existing group'. 'this word is usually translated by 'personality', but according to the commentaries it corresponds to sat-káya, 'existing group', hence not to Sanskrit sva-káya, 'own group' or 'own body'. In the suttas (e.g. M. 44) it is said to be a name for the 5 groups of existence (khandha): "Sakkáya, o Brother Visákha, is said by the Blessed One to be a name for the 5 'groups as objects of clinging' (upádána-kkhandha), to wit: corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations, and consciousness." - See foll.

sakkáya-ditthi: 'personality-belief', is the first of the 10 fetters (samyojana). It is entirely abandoned only on reaching the path of Stream-winning (sotápatti-magga; s. ariya-puggala). There are 20 kinds of personality-belief, which are obtained by applying 4 types of that belief to each of the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.): (1-5) the belief to be identical with corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations or consciousness; (6-10) to be contained in them; (11-15) to be independent of them; (16-20) to be the owner of them (M. 44; S. XXII. 1). See prec., ditthi, upádána 4.

saláyatana: the '6 bases' (of mental activity); s. áyatana, paticcasamuppáda.

samádhi: 'concentration'; lit. 'the (mental) state of being firmly fixed' (sam+á+Ö há), is the fixing of the mind on a single object. "One-pointedness of mind (cittass' ekaggatá), Brother Visakha, this is called concentration" (M. 44). Concentration - though often very weak - is one of the 7 mental concomitants inseparably associated with all consciousness. Cf. náma, cetaná.

Right concentration (sammá-samádhi), as the last link of the 8-fold Path (s. magga), is defined as the 4 meditative absorptions (jhána, q.v.). In a wider sense, comprising also much weaker states of concentration, it is associated with all karmically wholesome (kusala) consciousness. Wrong concentration (micchá-samádhi) is concentration associated with all karmically unwholesome (akusala, q.v.) consciousness. Wherever in the texts this term is not differentiated by 'right' or 'wrong', there 'right' concentration is meant .

In concentration one distinguishes 3 grades of intensity:

(1) 'Preparatory concentration' (parikamma-samádhi) existing at the beginning of the mental exercise.

(2) 'Neighbourhood concentration' (upacára-samádhi), i.e. concentration 'approaching' but not yet attaining the 1st absorption (jhána, q.v.), which in certain mental exercises is marked by the appearance of the so-called 'counter-image' (patibhága-nimitta).

(3) 'Attainment concentration' (appaná-samádhi), i.e. that concentration which is present during the absorptions. (App.)

Further details, s. bhávana, Vis.M. III and Fund. IV.

Concentration connected with the 4 noble path-moments (magga), and fruition-moments (phala), is called supermundane (lokuttara), having Nibbána as object. Any other concentration, even that of the sublimest absorptions is merely mundane (lokiya, q.v.).

According to D. 33, the development of concentration (samádhi-bhávaná) may procure a 4-fold blessing: (1) present happiness through the 4 absorptions; (2) knowledge and vision (ñána-dassana) - here probably identical with the 'divine eye' (s. abhiññá) through perception of light (kasina); (3) mindfulness and clear comprehension through the clear knowledge of the arising, persisting and vanishing of feelings, perceptions and thoughts; (4) extinction of all cankers (ásavakkhaya) through understanding the arising and passing away of the 5 groups forming the objects of clinging (s. khandha).

Concentration is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), one of the 5 spiritual faculties and powers (s. bala), and the last link of the 8-fold Path. In the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (morality, concentration and wisdom), it is a collective name for the three last links of the path (s. sikkhá).

samádhi-parikkhára: 'means, or requisites of concentration', are the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthána q.v.). See M. 44.

samádhi-samápatti-kusalatá, -thiti-kusalatá, -utthánakusalatá: skilfulness in entering into concentration, in remaining in it, and in rising from it. Cf. S.XXXIV, llff.

samádhi-sambojjhanga: 'concentration as factor of enlightenment' (s. bojjhanga).

samádhi-vipphárá iddhi: the 'power of penetrating concentration', is one of the magical faculties (iddhi, q.v.).

samanantara-paccaya: 'contiguity', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

sámañña-phala; the 'fruits of monkhood', is the name of a famous sutta (D. 2) and also, according to D. 33, a name for the 4 supermundane fruitions: Stream-entrance, Once-return, Non-return, and Perfect Holiness (s. ariya-puggala).

samápatti: 'attainments', is a name for the 8 absorptions of the fine-material and immaterial spheres to which occasionally is added as 9th attainment, attainment of extinction (nirodhasamápatti) Cf. jhána.

sama-sísí: one 'who attains two ends simultaneously', namely: the extinction of cankers and the end of life (s. Pug. 19). In A. VIII, 6 it is said: "Such is the case with a monk who dwells in the contemplation of impermanency of all forms of existence, keeping before his eyes their impermanency, perceiving their impermanency, perseveringly, steadfastly, undisturbed, of firm mind, wisely absorbed; and in whom at one and the same time the extinction of cankers and the end of like take place." (App.)

samatha: 'tranquillity', serenity, is a synonym of samádhi (coneentration), cittekaggatá (one-pointedness of mind) and avikkhepa (undistractedness). It is one of the mental factors in 'wholesome consciousness. Cf. foll. and bhávaná.

samatha-vipassaná: 'tranquillity and insight', are identical with concentration (samádhi, q.v.; s. prec.) and wisdom (paññá, q.v.), and form the two branches of mental development (bhávaná, q.v.).

(1) 'Tranquillity' is all unperturbed, peaceful and lucid state of mind attained by strong mental concentration. Though as a distinct way of practice (s. samatha-yánika), it aims at the attainment of the meditative absorptions (jhána, q.v.), a high degree of tranquil concentration (though not necessarily that of the absorptions) is indispensable for insight too. Tranquillity frees the mind from impurities and inner obstacles, and gives it greater penetrative strength.

''What now is the power of tranquillity (samatha-bala)? It is the one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind due to freedom from desire (renunciation) ... to freedom from ill-will ... to the perception of light (s. aloka-saññá) ... to non-distraction ... to the defilling of phenomena ... to knowledge, gladness, the 8 attainments, the 10 kasinas, the 10 recollections, the 9 cemetery contemplations, the 32 kinds of respiration-mindfulness ... the one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind of one contemplating abandonment (relinquishment) while inhaling and exhaling (s. ánápánasati).

"The power of tranquillity consists of the freedom from perturbation; in the 1st absorption, from the 5 hindrances (nívarana, (q.v.); in the 2nd absorption, from thought-conception and discursive thinking; ... in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception it consists of the freedom from perturbation by the perception of the sphere of nothingness (s. anupubbanirodha), which is no longer agitated and irritated by defilements associated with restlessness, nor by the groups of existence" (Pts.M. 1. p. 97)

(2) 'Insight' (s. vipassaná) is the penetrative understanding by direct meditative experience of the impermanency, unsatisfactoriness and impersonality of all material and mental phenomena of existence. It is insight that leads to entrance into the supermundance states of holiness and to final liberation.

''What now is the power of insight? It is the contemplation of impermanency (aniccánupassaná), of misery (dukkhanupassaná), impersonality' (anattánupassaná), of aversion (nibbidanupassaná), detachment (viráganupassaná), extinction (nirodha), ahandonment (patinissagga), with regard to corporcality, feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness.... That in contemplating the impermanency one is no more agitated by the idea of grasping ... no more by ignorance and the defilements associated therewith and no more by the groups of existence: this is called the power of insight" (Pts.M. p. 97).

"Two things are conducive to knowledge: tranquillity and insight. If tranquillity is developed, what profit does it bring? The mind is developed. If the mind is developed, what profit does it bring? All lust is abandoned.

"If insight is developed, what profit does it bring? Wisdom is developed. If wisdom is developed, what profit does it bring? All ignorance is abandoned" (A. II, 2.7).

There is a method of meditative practice where, in alternating sequence, tranquillity-meditation and insight-meditation are developed. It is called 'tranquillity and insight joined in pairs' (samatha-vipassanáyuganaddha), the coupling or yoking of tranquillity and insight. He who undertakes it, first enters into the 1st absorption. After rising from it, he contemplates the mental phenomena that were present in it (feeling, perception, etc.) as impermanent, painful and not-self, and thus he develops insight. Thereupon he enters into the 2nd absorption; and after rising from it, he again considers its constituent phenomena as impermanent, etc. In this way, he passes from one absorption to the next, until at last, during a moment of insight, the intuitive knowledge of the path (of Stream-entry, etc.) flashes forth - See A. IV, 170; A.IX, 36; Pts: Yuganaddha Kathá.

samatha-yánika: 'one who takes tranquillity as his vehicle'. This is a name for a person who not only has reached insight but also one or the other of the absorptions, to distinguish him from one 'who practises only insight' (sukkha-vipassaka, q.v.).

sambodhi = bodhi (q.v.).

sambojjhanga = bojjhanga (q.v.).

sammá-ditthi, -sankappa, -vaca, etc: see magga.

sammá-magga: see micchá-magga.

sammá-ppadhána: 'right exertion', is identical with the 6th link of the 8-fold path (s. magga, padhána).

sammá-sambodhi: 'Perfect Enlightenment', Universal Buddhahood, is the state attained by a Universal Buddha (sammá-sambuddha), i.e. one by whom the liberating law (dhamma) which had become lost to the world, has again been discovered, realized and clearly proclaimed to the world.

"Now, someone, in things never heard before, understands by himself the truth, and he therein attains omniscience, and gains mastery in the powers. Such a one is called a Universal Buddha, or Enlightened One" (Pug. 29).

The doctrine characteristie of all the Buddhas, and each time rediscovered by them and fully explained to the world, consists in the 4 Truths (sacca, q.v.) of suffering, its origin, its extinction and the way to its extinction (s. magga). See bodhi.

sammasana: 'comprehension', exploring, 'determining' (vavatthána, q.v.) is a name for the determining of all phenomena of existence as impermanent, miserable and impersonal (anicca, dukkha, anattá), etc., which is the beginning of insight (s. Pts.M. I, p. 53; Vis.M. XX); also called kalápa-s. (q.v.), 'comprehension by groups (of existence - khandha).' (App.).

sammatta: the 'state of rightness', are the 8 links of the 8-fold Path (D. 33). Cf. micchátta.

sammuti-sacca: 'conventional truth', is identical with vohára-sacca (s. paramattha-sacca).

sampadá: 'attainment, blessing'. The 5 blessings are said to be faith, morality, learning, liberality, wisdom (A. V, 91). Further: morality, concentration, wisdom, deliverance, the eye of knowledge connected with deliverance (A. V, 92).

sampajañña: 'clarity of consciousness', clear comprehension. This term is frequently met with in combination with mindfulness (sati). In D. 22, M. 10 it is said: "Clearly conscious is he in going and coming, clearly conscious in looking forward and backward, clearly conscious in bending and stretching his body; clearly conscious in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting, clearly conscious in discharging excrement and urine; clearly conscious in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep and awakening; clearly conscious in speaking and keeping silent." - For a definition of the term sati-sampajañña, s. Pug. 86.

According to the Com., 'clarity of consciousness' is of 4 kinds: regarding the purpose, the suitability, (inclusion in the meditative) domain, and the undeluded conception of the activity concerned. Explained in detail in Com. to Satipatthána Sutta. (tr. in The Way of Mindfulness, by Soma Thera; BPS).

sampaticchana-citta: 'receptive consciousness', is the mindelement (mano-dhátu) that follows immediately upon the arising of sense-consciousness (visual consciousness, etc.), performing on that occasion the function of recciving the sense-object. Regarding the other functions of consciousness, s. viññána-kicca.

sampayutta-paccaya: 'condition of association', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

samphassa = phassa (q.v.).

samsára: 'round of rebirth', lit. perpetual wandering', is a name by which is designated the sca of life ever restlessly heaving up and down, the symbol of this continuous process of ever again and again being born, growing old, suffering and dying. More precisely put, samsára is the unbroken chain of the five-fold khandha-combinations, which, constantly changing from moment to moment follow continuously one upon the other through inconceivable periods of time. Of this samsára, a single lifetime constitutes only a tiny and fleeting fraction; hence to be able to comprehend the first noble truth of universal suffering, one must let one's gaze rest upon the samsára, upon this frightful chain of rebirths, and not merely upon one single life-time, which, of course, may be sometimes less painful. - Cf. tilakkhana, anattá, paramattha, patisandhi.

samseva: 'companionship'. (1) "Through companionship with bad men (asappurisa-s.) comes listening to bad advice, thereby unwise reflection, thereby inattention and mental confusion, thereby lack of sense-control, thereby 3-fold bad conduct in bodily action, speech and mind, thereby the 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.), thereby craving for existence. (2) Through companionship with good men (sappurisa-s. ) comes listening to good advice, thereby faith, thereby wise reflection, thereby mindfulness and clarity of consciousness, thereby sense-control, thereby 3-fold good conduct, thereby the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthána, q.v ), thereby the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), thereby liberation through wisdom (paññá-vimutti, q.v.)." Cf. A. X 62.

samuccheda-pahána: 'overcoming by destruction', is the absolute extinction of certain fetters of existence (samyojana, q.v.), which takes place by entering into one of the 4 supermundane paths of holiness (s. ariya-puggala). - Regarding the 5 kinds of overcoming, s. pahána.

samudaya-sacca: 'truth of the origin', i.e. the origin of suffering, is the 2nd of the 4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.).

samutthána: 'origination'. There are 4 kinds of origination of corporeal phenomena, namely: through karma, consciousness, temperature, nutriment. For example, 'karma-produced' (kamma-s. = kammaja, karma-born) are the sense organs, sexual characteristics, etc., which, according to their nature, are conditioned either through wholesome or unwholesome karma formations (volitional actions; s. paticcasamuppáda, 2) in a previous existence. 'Mindproduced', i.e. consciousness-produced (citta-samutthána = cittaja) are bodily and verbal expression (viññatti, q.v.). For a detailed exposition, see Vis.M. XX. - (App.).

samvara-padhána: 'effort to avoid'; s. padhána.

samvara-síla: 'indriya-s.'; s. síla.

samvara-suddhi: 'purity of control', is another name for morality consisting of restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara-síla; s. síla).

samvatta-kappa: s. kappa.

samvega-vatthu: 'the sources of emotion', or of a sense of urgency, are 8: "birth, old age, disease, death, being 4; the suffering in the lower states of existence being the 5th; further, the misery of the past rooted in the cycle of rebirth, the misery of the future rooted in the cycle of rebirth, the misery of the present rooted in the search after food" (Vis.M. III.).

samvejaníya-tthána: 'places rousing emotion', are 4: the place where the Perfect One was born, (i.e. the Lumbini-grove near Kapilavatthu, at the present frontier of Nepal); the place where he reached Full Enlightenment (i.e. Uruvela, the modern Ureli, and Buddhagayá, on the Nerañjara-river; the modern Lilanja); the place where he, for the first time, unveiled the Dhamma to the world (i.e. the deer-park at Isipatana near Benares); the place where he entered the final Nibbána (i.e. Kusinára). (A. IV, 118).

samyojana: 'fetters'. There are 10 fetters tying beings to the wheel of existence, namely: (1) personality-belief (sakkáya-ditthi, q.v.), (2) sceptical doubt (vicikicchá q.v.), (3) clinging to mere rules and ritual (sílabbata-parámása; s. upádána), (4) sensuous craving (káma-rága, 4.v.), (5) ill-will (vyápáda), (6) craving for fine-material existence (rúpa-rága), (7) craving for immaterial existence (arúpa-rága), (8) conceit (mána, q.v.), (9) restlessness (uddhacca, q.v.), (10) ignorance (avijjá, q.v.). The first five of these are called 'lower fetters' (orambhágiya-samyojana), as they tie to the sensuous world. The latter 5 are called 'higher fetters' (uddhambhágiya-samyojana), as they tie to the higher worlds, i.e. the fine-material and immaterial world (A. IX, 67, 68; X. 13; D . 33, etc.).

He who is free from 1-3 is a Sotápanna, or Stream-winner, i.e. one who has entered the stream to Nibbána, as it were. He who, besides these 3 fetters, has overcome 4 and 5 in their grosser form, is called a Sakadágámi, a 'Once-returner' (to this sensuous world). He who is fully freed from 1-5 is an Anágámí, or 'Non-returner' (to the sensuous world). He who is freed from all the 10 fetters is called an Arahat, i.e. a perfectly Holy One.

For more details, s. ariya-puggala.

The 10 fetters as enumerated in the Abhidhamma, e.g. Vibh. XVII, are: sensuous craving, ill-will, conceit, wrong views, sceptical doubt, clinging to mere rules and ritual, craving for existence, envy, stinginess, ignorance.

sañcetaná = cetaná, q.v.

sangaha-vatthu: the 4 'ways of showing favour' are liberality, kindly speech, beneficial actions, impartiality (A. IV, 32; VIII, 24).

sangha (lit.: congregation), is the name for the Community of Buddhist monks. As the third of the Three Gems or Jewels (ti-ratana, q.v.) and the Three Refuges (ti-sarana, q.v.), i.e. Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, it applies to the ariya-sangha, the community of the saints, i.e. the 4 Noble Ones (ariya-pugga, q.v.), the Stream-winner, etc.

sankappa: 'thought', is a synonym of vitakka (q.v.). For sammá-s., or right thought, s. magga (2).

sankhára: This term has, according to its context, different shades of meaning, which should be carefully distinguished.

(I) To its most frequent usages (s. foll. 1-4) the general term 'formation' may be applied, with the qualifications required by the context. This term may refer either to the act of 'forming or to the passive state of 'having been formed' or to both.

1. As the 2nd link of the formula of dependent origination, (paticcasamuppáda, q.v.), sankhára has the active aspect, 'forming, and signifies karma (q.v.), i.e. wholesome or unwholesome volitional activity (cetaná) of body (káya-s.), speech (vací-s.) or mind (citta- or mano-s.). This definition occurs, e.g. at S. XII, 2, 27. For s. in this sense, the word 'karma-formation' has been coined by the author. In other passages, in the same context, s. is defined by reference to (a) meritorious karma-formations (puññ'ábhisankhára), (b) demeritorious k. (apuññ'abhisankhára), (c) imperturbable k. (áneñj'ábhisankhára), e.g. in S. XII, 51; D. 33. This threefold division covers karmic activity in all spheres of existence: the meritorious karma-formations extend to the sensuous and the fine-material sphere, the demeritorious ones only to the sensuous sphere, and the 'imperturbable' only to the immaterial sphere.

2. The aforementioned three terms, káya-, vací- and citta-s. are sometimes used in quite a different sense, namely as (1) bodily function, i.e. in-and-out-breathing (e.g. M. 10), (2) verbal function, i.e. thought-conception and discursive thinking, (3) mental-function, i.e. feeling and perception (e.g. M. 44). See nirodhasamápatti.

3. It also denotes the 4th group of existence (sankhárakkhandha), and includes all 'mental formations' whether they belong to 'karmically forming' consciousness or not. See khandha, Tab. II. and S. XXII, 56, 79.

4. It occurs further in the sense of anything formed (sankhata, q.v.) and conditioned, and includes all things whatever in the world, all phenomena of existence. This meaning applies, e.g. to the well-known passage, "All formations are impermanent... subject to suffering" (sabbe sankhára aniccá ... dukkhá). In that context, however, s. is subordinate to the still wider and all-embracing term dhamma (thing); for dhamma includes also the Unformed or Unconditioned Element (asankhata-dhátu), i.e. Nibbána (e.g. in sabbe dhammá anattá, "all things are without a self").

(II) Sankhára also means sometimes 'volitional effort', e.g. in the formula of the roads to power (iddhi-páda, q.v.); in sasankhára- and asankhára-parinibbáyí (s. anágámí, q.v.); and in the Abhidhamma terms asankhárika- (q.v.) and sasankhárika-citta, i.e. without effort = spontaneously, and with effort = prompted.

In Western literature, in English as well as in German, sankhára is sometimes mistranslated by 'subconscious tendencies' or similarly (e.g Prof Beckh: "unterbewußte Bildekräfte," i.e. subconscious formative forces). This misinterpretation derives perhaps from a similar usage in non-Buddhist Sanskrit literature, and is entirely inapplicable to the connotations of the term in Páli Buddhism, as listed above under I, 1-4. For instance, within the dependent origination, s. is neither subconscious nor a mere tendency, but is a fully conscious and active karmic volition. In the context of the 5 groups of existence (s. above I, 3), a very few of the factors from the group of mental formations (sankhárakkhandha) are also present as concomitants of subconsciousness (s. Tab. I-III), but are of course not restricted to it, nor are they mere tendencies.

sankhárupekkhá-ñána: the 'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the formations of existence', is one of those kinds of knowledge which form the 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' (s. visuddhi, VI, 8). "It is known by 3 names: in the lowest stage it is called 'knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance' (rnuccitu-kamyatá-ñána); in the middle stage it is called the 'reflecting contemplation' (patisankhánupassanáñána); in the last stage, however, i.e. after attaining the summit, it is called the 'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the formations of existence' " (Vis.M. XXI).

sankhata: the 'formed', i.e. anything originated or conditioned, comprises all phenomena of existence. Cf. sankhára I, 4; asankhata.

sankhitta citta: in the Satipatthána Sutta, signifies the 'contracted' or 'cramped' mind, not the concentrated (samáhita) mind, as often translated by Western authors. Cf. Satipatthána (3).

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