Từ điển phật học
Tuyển tập từ ngữ Phật học thường dùng (Anh-Việt)
Jan - 2002 by Minh Thông, MSc.

» Tch
23/02/2010 13:54 (GMT+7)
Kích cỡ chữ:  Giảm Tăng

Tchakravartin (S), Cakravartin (S) Chuyển luân vương Chuyển luân thánh vương, Chuyển luân thánh đế. Tên cha đức Phật Đại Thông Trí Thắng. Là vị Thánh vương vỉ pháp lý mà cai trị khắp hoàn cầu.

Tchandala (S), Candala (S) Chiên đà lỵ Giai cấp bị coi là hạ tiện trong xãhội Ấn thời xưa. Nam gọi là Chiên đà la (Candala), nữ gọi là Chiên đà lỵ.

Tchandrasuryapradīpa-Buddha (S), Candrasurya-pradīpa-Buddha (S) Nhật Nguyệt Đăng Minh Phật Name of a Buddha or Tathāgata Tên một vị Phật hay Như Lai.

Tchandra-surya-pradīpa-buddha (S), Candra-surya-pradīpa-buddha (S) Nhựt nguyệt Đăng minh Như lai Name of a Buddha or Tathāgata. Tên một vị Phật hay Như Lai.

Tchandra-vimala-surrya-prabhā-saśrī (S), Candra-vimala-surrya-prabhā-saśrī (S) Nhựt nguyệt Tịnh Minh đức Như lai Name of a Buddha or Tathāgata. Tên một vị Phật hay Như Lai.

Tch'ang-nan (C) Trường an.

Tch'an-tsoung Tchou-chou (C) Thiền tông trứ thuật Một trong hai bộ kinh căn bản của Thiền tông Trung hoa: Thiền tông trứ thuật và Thiền tông ngữ lục do chư tổ và đại đức Tàu biên tập do gom góp trong nhiều triều đại từ nhà Tống, Nguyên, Minh đến Thanh.

Tchaturmahāradja (S), Caturmahāradja (S)Tứ thiên vương → Catumamahārājukas (S), Catur-mahārājakyikas (S) Tứ đại thiên vương Bốn vị cai quản bốn cõi trời dục giới miền trời Đao lợi (33 cảnh trời) thuộc quyền vua trời Đế Thích: - Trì quốc thiên vương: cai quản phương đông. - Quảng Mục thiên vương: cai quản phương tây. - Tăng trưởng thiên vương: cai quản phương nam. - Đa văn thiên vương: cai quản phương bắc.

Tchatur-mahārājakyikas (S), Caturmahārāja-kyikas (S) Tứ đại thiên vương Xem Catumamaharajukas.

Tch'eng-cheu Tsung (C) Thành thật tông Name of a school or branch. Tên một tông phái.

Tchenn-yen Tsung (C) Chơn ngôn Tông Name of a school or branch. Tên một tông phái.

Tchenn-yen-tsung (C) Chơn ngôn tông Name of a school or branch. Cũng gọi là Mật tông hay Du chỉ tông. Ngài Kim Cang Trí (Vajrabodhi) thành lập ở Tàu năm 719, sau ngài Hoằng Pháp đại sư (Kobo-Daishi) truyền qua Nhật năm 804.

Tchenrezig (T) Quán thế âm Bồ tát See Avalokiteśvara.

Tchenrezigs (T) Bồ tát Quán thế âm See Tchenrezig.

Tcheu-K'ai (C) Trí Khải Thiên Thai Trí giả Name of a monk. (531-597) Tổ sư Thiên Thai Tông Trung quốc, thọ 67 tuổi, Ngài tu tại núi Thiên Thai, chuyên trì kinh Pháp Hoa.

Tcheu-Kai (C) Trí Khải Đại sư See Tcheu-K'ai.

Tcheu-K'ien (C) Chi Khiêm Name of a monk. Tên một vị sư.

Tchouang Tseu (C) Trang Tử.

Te (C) Ðức in Taoism, te is physical power, the power of nature, the cosmos, man, and everything. in Confucianism, te also means compassion (ren). Compassion and power are important together.

Teacher of Gods and Men Thiên nhân sư One of the ten epithets of the Buddha.

Teacher of Omniscience Chánh biến tri An epithet of the Buddha.

Tedjas (S) Oai đức Oai thế và đức hạnh.

Teh Shao (C) Đức Thiều → Tokusho (J) Name of a monk. Tên một vị sư Thiên thai tông.

Teh-shan Hsuan chien (C) Đức Sơn Tuyên Giám → Tokusan Senkan (J) Name of a monk. Tên một vị sư. Đệ tử của Long-đàm Sùng-tín (782-865).

Teh-shan Mi (C) Đức Sơn Mật.

Teihatsu (J) Thế phát Shaving Xem Mundana.

Teisho (J) Orally transmitting the Dharma in the form of a lecture. This is often a formal commentary on a koan, by a master. it is supposed to be non-dualistic, which helps to distinguish it from a Dharma talk.

Teja (S) Lửa Fire Hỏa Trong tứ đại: - đất (prithin) - nước (apas) - gió (vayu) - lửa (teja) Thọ đề Tên một đứa trẻ sinh ra trong đám lửa.

Tejo-dhātu (S) Hỏa đại Fire element See Paca-mahābhūta.

Tejorāśi (S) Quang Tụ Phật đảnh Đế Thù La Thí, Hỏa tụ Phật đảnh, Phóng quang Phật đảnh, Hỏa quang Phật đảnh Name of a Bodhisattva. Tên một vị Bồ tát.

Tejorāśyusnisaḥ (S) Quang Tụ Tán Cái Phật đảnh Bồ tát → Usnisatejorasi (S) Hoả tụ Phật đảnh, Quang tụ Phật đảnh luân vương Name of a Bodhisattva. Tên một vị Bồ tát.

tek pa chen po (T) Đại thừa See Mahāyāna.

tek pa chung wa (T) Tiểu thừa See Hīnayāna.

tel wa gye (T) Tám đường giải thoát See Eight freedoms.

Temple Chùa → Pagoda Pháp đồng xá, pháp thực đồng xá (đạo và đồ ăn chung một chỗ), pháp thực nhị đồng xá (đạo và đồ ăn là hai chỗ). Có 10 danh từ người ta dùng để chùa, gồm: -tự - tịnh trụ - pháp đồng xá - xuất thế xá - tinh xá - thanh tịnh viên - kim cang sát - tịch diệt đạo tràng - viễn ly xứ - thân cận xứ.

Tempyo (J) Thiên Bình See T'ien-P'ing.

Ten acts of virtue Thập đức Ten acts of virtue for purifying the First Stage: Faith, compassion, love, abandonment, perseverance, thorough knowledge of the principles of truth, guiding sentient beings, feeling of shame, making offerings to Buddhas, and firmly abiding by their teachings.

Ten advantages of wearing the prescribed robes Ca sa thập chủng đức, ca sa thập lợi, ca sa thập thắng lợi 1. the robes exhibit one's feeling of repentance and shame, 2. they keep the body from heat and cold and keep away mosquitoes, gadflies and poisonous insects; 3. they show the proper manner of a monk, 4. devas and humans pay respect to them just as they worship stupas and temples, 5. they show the mind of detachment, 6. they are in accord with the way of extinction of evil passions, 7. any evil acts can be easily discovered when robes are worn, 8. those wearing the robes do not require any other ornaments, 9. those wearing the robes readily practise the Eightfold Noble Path, and 10. those wearing the robes diligently practise the Way without the impure minds.

Ten benefits Trì giới thập lợiThe ten benefits attending the observance of sila: 1. becoming a Cakravartin always, 2. not losing the mind of diligence when he becomes one, 3. becoming a Shakra always, 4. not losing the mind of diligence when he becomes one, 5. seeking the Buddhist Paths always, 6. always holding fast to the teachings of bodhisattvas, 7. not losing unhindered eloquence, 8. always fulfilling the aspiration to plant various roots of merit, 9. being always praised by Buddhas, bodhisattvas and other sages, and 10. quickly attaining all sorts of wisdom.

Ten Bodhisattva-stages Thập địa Refers to Nagarjuna's Commentary on the Chapter Ten Stages of the Garland Sutra; this work contains his explanation of the first two stages. in the ninth chapter, Easy Path, he presents an easy way of reaching the Stage of Non-retrogression.

Ten bonds Thập sử Mười thằng thúc including: shamelessness, unblushing-ness, envy, meanness, regretful-ness, torpidity, unstableness, gloominess, anger and secret sinning.

Ten dark evil acts Thập ác See Ten evil acts.

Ten directions Thập phương North, South. East, West; North-eatern, North-western, South-eastern, South-western, Zenith and Nadir.

ten drel (T) Duyên khởi See Dependent origination.

Ten elements of virtue Thập đức, thập thiện nghiệp Same as the ten good acts.

Ten epithets Thập hiệu The ten epithets of the Buddha: 1. Tathagata, 'Thus-come', one who has come from Thusness, 2. Arhat, 'one worthy of alms-giving', 3. Samyaksambuddha, 'fully enlightened', 4. Vidya-carana-sampanna, 'one having wisdom and practice', 5. Sugata, 'well-gone', one who has attained emancipation, 6. Lokavid, 'the knower of the world', 7. Anuttara, 'the unsurpassed', 8. Purusa-damya-sarathi', 'the tamer of gods and men', 9. Shasta devamanusyanam, 'the teacher of gods and men', and 10. Buddha-lokanatha, 'the enlightened and world-honoured one'.

Ten Evil Acts Thập ác → Ten Evil Deeds, Ten Sins 1. Killing; 2.stealing; 3. sexual misconduct; 4. lying; 5. slander; 6. coarse language; 7. empty chatter; 8. covetousness; 9. angry speech; 10. wrong views.

Ten Evil Deeds (S) Thập ác See Ten Evil Acts.

Ten faults Thập ác See Ten evil acts.

Ten fears Thập úy 1. fear of falling into hell, 2. into the realm of animals, 3. into the realm of hungry spirits, 4. fear of poverty, 5. fear of being abused, rebuked or spoken ill of, 6. fear of being covered by evil passions, 7. fear of falling into the stages of a sravaka and a pratyekabuddha, 8. fear of harassment by devas, humans, dragon gods, and other demi-gods, 9. fear of attack by enemy soldiers, poisonous animals or insects, foods and fire, lions, tigers, wolves, and other people, 10. fear of being confused by wrong views. Mười điều lo sợ.

Ten good acts Thập thiện 1. not killing living beings, 2. not stealing, 3. not committing adultery, 4. not telling lies, 5. not uttering harsh words, 6. not uttering words which cause enmity between two or more persons, 7. not engaging in idle talk, 8. not being greedy, 9. not being angry, and 10. not having wrong views.

Ten great vows Thập đại nguyện The vows to be made by bodhisattvas who dwell in the First Stage: 1. to revere, make offerings to and serve all Buddhas, 2. to protect and uphold their teachings, 3. to praise and make offerings to them as they appear in the world, become Buddhas and preach the Dharma, 4. to teach and guide sentient beings so that they may attain higher spiritual states, 5. to guide all beings ultimately to the Buddha's Enlightenment, 6. to incorporate all the teachings and dharmas into the non-dual principle of equality, 7. to remove various evils in order to produce a pure land, 8. to do the same acts of merit with other people without a sense of rivalry, 9. to turn the wheel of the Dharma, remove evil passions of all beings and lead them to establish pure faith in the Dharma, and 10. to manifest attainment of Enlightenment in all the worlds.

Ten minds Thập tâm Ten minds to be cultivated in the Second Stage 1. sincere and straight mind, 2. fitness to act, 3. a soft and tender mind, 4. a mind to control sense-organs, 5. tranquillity, 6. a truly wonderful mind, 7. avoiding mixing with people, 8. absence of greed, 9. a delightful mind, and 10. a great mind.

Ten powers Thập lực The ten powers or abilities attributed to a Buddha: 1. distinguishing right from wrong, 2. knowing the karma of all sentient beings of the past, present and future, and their outcome, 3. knowing all forms of meditation, 4. knowing the superior and inferior capacities of sentient beings, 5. knowing what they desir and think, 6. knowing their different levels of existence, 7. knowing the results of various methods of practice, 8. knowing the rransmigratory states of all sentient beings and the courses of karma which they follow, 9. knowing the past lives of all sentient beings and the nirvanic state of non-defilement, and 10. knowing how to destroy all evil passions.

Ten powers of the Buddha Thập Phật lực These are special "miraculous" powers of the Buddha.

Ten precepts Thập giới A Buddhist novice should abstain from the following: (1) killing living beings, (2) stealing, (3) sexual intercourse, (4) telling lies, (5) intoxicating drinks, (6) bodily decoration and perfume, (7) singing and dancing or going to see dances or plays, (8) sleeping in a big bed, (9) eating at wrong times, and (10) keeping money or jewels; cf. precepts for a novice.

Ten sins Thập tội See Ten Evil Acts.

Ten Stages of a Bodhisattva's Progress Thập địa They are the following: (1) Joy at having overcome former difficulties and at now entering the path to Buddhahood; (2) Freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity; (3) The stage of further enlightenment; (4) Glowing wisdom; (5) Mastery of the utmost or final difficulties; (6) The open way of wisdom that is beyond purity and impurity; (7) Proceeding afar, above the concept of "self" in order to save others; (8) Attainment of calm imperturbability; (9) Achievement of the finest discriminatory wisdom; knowing, expediently, where and how to save; possessing the ten powers; (10) Attainment of the fertilizing powers of the Law Cloud.

Ten titles Thập hiệu Ten epithets The ten epithets of the Buddha. These are: (1) Tathagata, 'thus-come,' one who has come from Thusness or Suchness; (2) Arhat, 'one worthy of receiving alms'; (3) Samyaksambuddha, 'fully enlightened'; (4) Vidya-carana-sampanna, 'one having wisdom and practice'; (5) Sugata, 'well-gone,' one who has attained emancipatin; (6) Lokavid, 'the knower of the world'; (7) Anuttara, 'the unsurpassed'; (8) Purusa-damya-sarathi, 'the tamer of men'; (9) Shasta deva-manusyanam, 'the teacher of gods and men'; (10) Buddha-bhagavat or Buddha-lokanatha, 'the enlightened and world-honoured one.'.

Ten ultimate ends The ten ultimate ends which bodhisattvas should seek to explore by making relevant vows: 1. the ultimate nature of sentient beings, 2. of universe, 3. space, 4. the ultimate Dharma-nature, 5. the ultimate nature of Nirvana, 6. of Buddhas, 7. of Buddhas' wisdom, 8. of all the objects of mind, 9. of the Buddhas' spheres of activity and wisdoms, and 10. of the evolution of the sentient world, the Dharma and wisdoms.

Ten virtues Thập đức, thập thiện nghiệp The virtuous modes of behavior, which are the positive counterparts to the Five Precepts.

Tendai (J) Thiên Thai tông → T'ien-t'ai (C) See T'ien-t'ai.

Tendai School (C) Thiên đài tông See Tien tai tsung. Thiên thai tông ở Trung quốc.

Tendai shū (J) Thiên Thai Tông See Tendai.

Tendai Tokushō (J) Thiên Thai Đức Thiều See T'ien-T'ai Te-shao.

Tendai-Pure Land master One who belongs to the Tendai school but holds Pure Land faith, like Genshin.

Tendai-shū (J) Thiên đài tông See Tien tai tsung. Thiên thai tông ở Trung quốc.

Tendō Nyojō (J) Thiên Đồng Như Tịnh Name of a monk. Tên một vị sư.

Tendō-zan (J) Thiên Đồng sơn.

Teng Yin-feng (C) Đặng Ấn Phong A student of Ma-tsu, 8th century. Đệ tử của ngài Mã Tổ, thế kỷ thứ 8.

Teng yiu feng (C) Đặng An Phong → To impo (J).

Tengyur (T) Ðan Thù tạng The great Tibetian collection of over 100 works of the commentaries (shastras) of the Buddhist works.

Tenjiku (J) Thiên Trúc.

Tennō (J) Thiên Vương.

Tennō Dōgo (J) Thiên Hoàng Đạo Ngộ See Tien huang Tao wu.

Ten'o Dogo (J) Thiên Hoàng Đạo Ngộ See T'ien-huang Tao-wu.

Tenryū (J) Thiên Long See Tien lung.

Tenzo (J) Điển tọa.

Tenzo kyōkun (J) Điển tọa giáo huấn.

Tera (J) Chùa Temple.

terma (S) điển, hữu duyên tao ngộ bí mật bảo điển Literally, hidden treasure. Works which were hidden by great bodhisattvas and later rediscovered. They might be actual physical texts or they may come from "the sky" as transmissions from the sambhogakaya.

terton (T) điển phát kiến sư A master in the Tibetan tradition who discovers treasures (terma) which are teachings concealed by great masters of the past.

Te-shan Hsuan chieh (C) Đức sơn Tuyên giám → Tokusan Senkan (J), Deshan Xuanjian (C) (78(1) 867) A student and dharma successor of Lung t'an Ch'ung-hsin (781-867) Đệ tử và truyền nhân giáo pháp của Long Đàm Sùng Tín.

Tesshikaku (J) Thiết chủy giác See Tich tsui Chiao.

Tettsū Gikai (J) Triệt Thông Nghĩa Giới Name of a monk. Tên một vị sư.

Tevijjā (P) Tam minh, Tam thông Three-fold knowledge.

Tevijjā sutta (P) Kinh Tam minh.

Tevijjā-vacchagotasuttam (P) Kinh Ba minh Vacchagota Name of a sutra. Tên một bộ kinh.

Thambha (P) Cố chấp Obduracy Chấp Hypocrisy.

Than (Thai) Thầy (also "tan") Reverend, Venerable.

Thana sutta (P) Sutra on Courses of Action Name of a sutra. (AN iV.115)(AN iV.192) Tên một bộ kinh.

thangka (T) Tranh lụa, đương ca, đường kha, Tây tạng thánh tượng quyển Scroll Hoành A Tibetan religious scroll.

Theism Hữu thần giáo.

thek pa (T) Thừa See Yāna.

Theology Thần học.

Theory of universal Voidness The Madhyamika view that negates all kinds of existence and even negative propositions.

Theosophy Thần trí học, Thông thiên học.

Thera (P) Thượng tọa, trưởng lão, thượng lạp, thủ tọa, trụ vị, tất đề na, tất tha thiết la → Sthavira (P) → Trưởng lão A senior bhikkhu (of ten years or more seniority).

Theragāthā (P) Trưởng lão Tăng kệ Verses of the arahat monks One of 15 chapterrs in Khuddaka Nikaya, consisting of 1360 verses written by the monks inspired from the way of their living, telling how a number of early monks attained enlightenment. Một trong 15 tập của Tiểu bộ kinh, gồm 1360 bài kệ do các Tỳ kheo cảm tác từ đời sống tu hành của mình, nói về các phương pháp đạt đến giác ngộ.

Theranāma sutta (P) Sutra by the Name of Elder (On Solitude) Name of a sutra. (SN XXi.10) Tên một bộ kinh.

Theravāda (P) Thượng tọa bộ The school of the elders → Sthaviravāda (P), neten depa (T) Phật Giáo nguyên thủy One of the two major schools of Buddhism in the early period. The Buddhist tradition, the scriptures of which are recorded in the Pali language; this tradition advocates the Arahant path. Nghĩa gốc là "đạo của người xưa". Danh hiệu của trường phái tiểu thừa duy nhất còn tồn tại. Còn gọi là Phật giáo Nam tông.

Theravada Buddhism Thượng tọa bộ, học thuyết See Theravada.

Theravada School Thượng tọa bộ, trường phái A school, sometimes called the hinayana, which is the foundation of Buddhism and this school emphasizes the careful examination of mind and its confusion.

Theravadin (P) Thượng tọa bộ, người theo Theravada follower A follower of the Theravada school.

Therī (P) Trưởng lão ni.

Therigāthā (P) Trưởng lão ni (tăng) kệ Verses of the arahat nuns One of 15 chapterrs in Khuddaka Nikaya, written by the nuns inspired from the way of their living, telling how a number of early nuns attained enlightenment. Một trong 15 tập của Tiểu bộ kinh, do các Tỳ kheo ni cảm tác từ đời sống tu hành của mình, nói về các phương pháp đạt đến giác ngộ.

Thīna (P) Hôn trầm Sloth.

Thīnamiddha (P) Thuỵ miên Dullness and drowsiness Hôn miên cái, Hôn trầm dã dượi Sloth and torpor. See Styāna-middha-avarana. Biếng nhác, mê ngủ, hôn trầm.

Third Gate The third of the Five Mindful Practices.

Thirteen contemplations thập tam quán phápThe thirteen contemplations in the Contemplation Sutra, beginning with that of the setting sun and culminating in clear perception of Amida and his two attendant bodhisattvas.

Thirty-seven Limbs of Enlightenment Ba mươi bảy phẩm trợ đạo Tam thập thất giác chi These are: a. the four mindfulnesses; b. the four right efforts; c. the four bases of miraculous powers; d. the five roots; e. the five powers; f. the seven factors of enlightenment; and g. the eightfold noble path.

Thirty-two signs Ba mươi hai tướng tốt These are the thirty-two mythical 'signs' appearing on the body of a Buddha when he is born.

Thitassa annatthatta (P) The transforma-tion of that which endures.

thok may (S) Vô Trước See Asaṅga.

Those of the middle and lower stages Nhị thừa The two kinds of Hinayana sages, i.e. pratyekabuddhas and shravakas.

Thought Hnh The way we process information, both facts and truths.

Thousand-spoked wheel Thiên bức luân tướng One of the 32 physical characteristics of a Buddha; the mark of a wheel on the soles.

Three aspects of each physical characteristic of the Buddha tam đại: thể, tướng, dụng 1. the essence of each characteristic, 2. reward of it, and 3. the karma which has produced it.

Three aspects of Faith Tam tín tâm: chân tâm, hoan hỉ tâm, nguyện sanh tâmAlso Three Minds; the three aspects of Faith of the Other-Power presented in the Eighteenth Vow: Sincere Mind, Joyful Faith and Desire for Birth.

Three bodies of the Buddha Ba thân Phật → Trikāya (S) 1. Dharmakaya: The Dharma-body, or the "body of reality", which is formless, unchanging, transcendental, and inconceivable. Synonymous with suchness, or emptiness. 2. Sambhogakaya: the "body of enjoyment", the celestial body of the Buddha. Personification of eternal perfection in its ultimate sense. it "resides" in the Pure Land and never manifests itself in the mundane world, but only in the celestial spheres, accompanied by enlightened Bodhisattvas. 3. Nirmanakaya: the "incarnated body" of the Buddha. in order to benefit certain sentient beings, a Buddha incarnates himself into an appropriate visible body, such as that of Sakyamuni Buddha.

Three Characteristics tam đại pháp ấn: khổ, vô thường, không All conditioned phenomena are unsatisfactory,impermanent and devoid of Self.

Three defilements Tam độc The three evil passions: greed, anger and stupidity.

Three distinct teachings tam thừa giáo pháp The teachings for bodhisattvas, pretyekabuddhas and shravakas; the teachings for bodhisattvas are Mahayana, the Great Vehicle, and those for pratyekabuddhas and shravakas are called Hinayana, the Lesser Vehicle.

Three elements of virtue tam học, tam thắng học Observance of the precept, samadhi and wisdom,.

Three Evil Paths Ba đường á, tam đồ See "Evil Paths.".

Three evil realms Ba cõi ác Hell, the realms of hungry spirits and the realm of animals.

Three faults Ba lỗi 1. hating bodhisattvas, 2. hating their acts, and 3. rejecting Mahayana sutras.

Three gates of emancipation Tam giải thoát môn: không, vô tướng, vô nguyện The states attained by practising the three samadhis.

Three gates to nirvāṇa Ba cửa vào niết bàn Gồm: - hư không - cô sắc - bất động.

Three immutables These are the hinayana, the mahayana, and the vajrayana.

Three impediments Evil passions and various hindrances connected with meditation, and hindrance concerning all things and matters.

Three indestructibles Ba bất tận Gồm: - thân bất tận - mạng bất tận - sở hữu tâm linh bất tận.

Three insights The three insights into the nature of dharmas: (1) insight into reality through hearing the sacred sounds, (2) insight into reality by being in accord with it, and (3) insight into the non-arising of all dharmas.

Three Jewels Tam bảo Three Precious Ones. Three Treasures including: Buddha, Dharma and Sangha; sometimes referred to as the Teacher, the Teaching and the Taught.

Three karmas Ba nghiệp The three conditions, inheritances or karmas, of which there are several groups, including the karmas of deeds, words and thoughts.

Three kāyas Ba thân → ku sum (T) There are three bodies of the Buddha: the nirmanakaya, sambhogakaya and dharmakaya. The dharmakaya, also called the "truth body," is the complete enlightenment or the complete wisdom of the Buddha which is unoriginated wisdom beyond form and manifests in the sambhogakaya and the nirmanakaya. The sambhogakaya, also called the "enjoyment body," manifests only to bodhisattvas. The nirmanakaya, also called the "emanation body," manifests in the world and in this context manifests as the Shakyamuni Buddha.

Three kinds of defilements → Evils, karma and blind passions.

Three kinds of sages tam thừa thánh giả, tam thừa thánh chúng Shravakas, pratyekabuddhas and bodhisattvas.

Three marks of existence These are the characteristics of impermanent objects and are literally birth, present life, and death. More metaphorically, it means the object has a beginning, it has a solid existence in the present, and it decays or disintegrates into smaller constituents in the future.

Three meritorious actions tam phước (nói trong Quán kinh, để làm trợ hạnh vãng sanh Tây phương) Those acts which are conducive to one's birth in the Pure Land: (1) acts of moral good, (2) observance of the precepts, and (3) acts of Mahayana good.

Three Minds See three aspects of Faith.

Three minds with which one should practise dāna Bố thí tam tịnh tâm 1. Bodhi-mind, because one pities all sentient beings, 2. keeping the Buddha Dharma close to one's heart, and 3. not seeking any reward.

Three misconducts committed by those who live in the aranya with a false motivation 1. lacking in wisdom if one does not practise diligently, 2. liable to have a sexual intercourse upon meeting a woman and thus face the penalty of expulsion from the samgha, and 3. liable to break the precepts and return to secular life.

Three objectives Three objectives with which one should practise Dana: 1. to learn the Buddha Dharma, 2. to expound the Dharma, and 3. to lead all beings to attain the supreme happiness.

Three pains tam khổ, tam thống The three kinds of pain which we experience are: (1) physical and mental pain caused by illness, thirst, hunger, etc., (2) pain of losing something or some living thing one is attached to, and (3) pain caused by vicissitudes of the world.

Three pillars, The Tam đĩnh viện.

Three poisons Tam độc → duk sum (T) Three defilements, three hindrances, three covers. Gồm: tham (desire), sân (anger), si (stupidity).

Three Pure Land sūtras Tịnh Ðộ tam kinh: kinh A Di Ðà, kinh Vô Lượng Thọ và kinh Quán Vô Lượng Thọ Pure Land Buddhism is based on three basic sutras: a) Amitabha Sutra (or Shorter Amitabha Sutra, or Smaller Sukhavati-Vyuha, or the Sutra of Amida); b) Longer Amitabha Sutra (or Longer Sukhavati-Vyuha, or the Teaching of infinite Life); c) Meditation Sutra (or the Meditation on the Buddha of infinite Life, or the Amitayus Dhyana Sutra).

Three realms Ba cõi, tam ác đạo The three lowest realms, i.e., hell, the realm of hungry spirits and that of animals.The Three Realms are also: form, formlessness, and desire. Human existence is said to be apart of the desire realm.

Three refuges Tam quy y Taking refuge and possessing confidence in the Buddha's Awakening, in his Teaching and in the Sangha of enlightened disciples. Xem Tisarana.

Three roots · tsa wa sum (T) These are the lamas, the yidams, and the dharma protectors.

Three samādhis Ba tam muội Samadhis of emptiness, non-form and non-desire; in these samadhis one realizes that the dharmas are empty and are not to be grasped as objects of perception and desire.

Three supernatural powers Tam thần lực, tam minh 1. knowledge of the former lives of oneself and others, 2. ability to know the future destiny of oneself and others, and 3. ability to know all about the miseries of the present life and to remove their root-cause, i.e., evil passions.

Three transcendent knowledges See transcendent knowledge.

Three treasures Tam bảo The Buddha, Dharma and samgha.

Three unwholesome roots Tam bất thiện căn three conditions that determine the moralquality of unskillful volitional actions, viz. greed (lobha), hate(dosa) and delusion (moha). Sometimes translated in other ways,e.g. lust, ill-will and ignorance. See also kilesa.

Three vehicles Tam thừa The yanas of Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas and Bodhisatt-vas.

Three vows Tam thệ nguyện.

Three wholesome roots Tam thiện căn three conditions that determine the moralquality of skillful volitional actions, viz. non-greed, non-hate andnon-delusion.

Three worlds Tam giới: Dục giới, sắc giới, vô sắc giới, còn gọi là tam hữuThe three levels of the state of existence in Samsara: (1) the world of desire, which comprises hell, the realms of hungry spirits, animals, humans and some of the heavens; (2) the world of form, which comprises some higher heavens; and (3) the world of non-form, which consists of supernal heavens.

Thrisong Deutsen (T) Thrisong Deutsen 790-858 C.E. He was a king of Tibet and invited great indian saints and yogis to Tibet. He also directed construction of Tibet's first monastery (Samye Ling).

Throne Pháp toà.

Thuddhamma (P) Đa đạt ma phái Một tông phái Phật giáo Miến điện.

Thukpa (S) Củ cải muối.

Thullaccaya (S) Đại tội → Thulaccaya (P), Sthulatyaya (S) Thâu lan giá da, Thâu lan giá, Trọng tội Grave offense, the most serious derived offense.

Thūpa (P) Tháp See Stūpa.

Thūparama (S) Tháp Viên.

Thūpavaṃsa (S) Tháp sử Do Tỳ kheo Vacissara người Tích Lan, thế kỳ 13, biên soạn.

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